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Ornithology, ornithomancy. Sokołowski and (other) birds of Jerzy Ficowski The starting point for my article was Jerzy Ficowski’s poem Do autora “Ptaków ziem polskich”. The poem, found in the poet’s penultimate volume – Zawczas z poniewczasem (2004) is commemorating Jan Sokołowski (1899–1982). He was a prominent ornithologist, one of the contemporary forerunners of the field, a pioneer of bird protection in Poland, and, above all, a visionary who in his work exhibited an innovatively personal approach to animals. The language he used was commonly regarded as anthropomorphic, since he attributed animals with emotions. In the article, I deal with poetic traces of both deliberate and accidental relations between Ficowski’s work and the ornithological work of Sokołowki. At the same time I attempt at a reconstruction of the advice that the author of Pantarei gained from the so to speak indirect consultations with the scholar. This allowed him to set the birds free in terms of cultural code of symbolic meaning. By referring to fairly numerous poems of Ficowski in which animals are present as main characters I prove that in both his and Sokołowski’s representation they are in fact quite similar. This, naturally, is done in different registers, however they both paid special attention to both ornithological faithfulness and what is beyond the reach of science, i.e. attempting to reflect the inner life of birds. Key words: animal studies; ornithology; Polish poetry;
Content available remote Konstanty Tyzenhauz (1786-1853): twórca i mecenas polskiej ornitologii
As a naturalist active in the Wilno scholar I y community, Konstatnty Tyzenhauz began his field research, in 1814 in a region stretching from the the Narocz lakes in the South to the Bracław Lakes in the North (now within the boundaries ofBelarus). He later extended his fieldwork to the whole of the Wilno region; he also conducted studies of the surroundings of Grodno and Pinsk, as well as of the Podole region, the Carpathian Mountains and other regions. The first written work by Tyzenhauz was entitled Rozprawa o Sowie lapońskiej (mszarnej) znalezionej w Litwie [A dissertation on the Lapland (Morass) Owl found in Lithuania], the Polish manuscript of which appeared 1830 (there was also a German version of the study: C. von Tyzenhaus: "Archive fur Naturgeschichte" v. Troschel, Berlin; according to K. Plasota -Leipzig). Tyzenhauz used the name morass owI (strix microphtalmos) for what is known in English as the Lapland owi or great grey owi (strix nebulosa). As time went by, Tyzenhauz gained a reputation as one of Europe's most eminent omithologists. He was a member of many different Polish and foreign leamed societies. During his lifetime, Tyzenhauz published over fifty , faunistic, mainIy ornithological, studies in Poland and abroad, in which he described a' total of three thousand birds (see J. Ziemczonok: Muzeum zoologiczne Konstatntego Tyzenhauza w Postawach (1814-1856). "Kwartalnik Historii i Nauki" 2001,2, pp 121-140). Tyzenhauz's major work: Zasady ornitologii albo nauki o ptakach. Obejmujące rys postepu jej literatury. taxonomią, glosologią i terminologią, z przydaniem 5 tablic litografowanych części ptaków objaśniających i jednej tablicy kolorów [The principles of omithology or the science of birds ...] (Wilno 1841, pp. 165, published by the author) was the first book of this kind to be published in Poland. Tyzenhauz was also a cofounder of the Wilno Typographical Society in 1819. Among other noteworthy aspects of Tyzenhauz's activities is his sponsorhip ofseveral scholars, in their number Stanisław Batys Górski.
The bibliography contains papers published by Polish authors and foreign authors writing about birds in Poland within the boundaries of 1938. Some popular articles are also included, especially those with data on biology and protection of birds. The main content of the bibliography is arranged by alphabetic sequence of authors. Indexes include: taxons, geographical index and 16 subject indexes. Polish ornithological bibliographies for the period 1945-1980 were published in Acta Ornithological vol. 9 (1965): 1-76,18 (1980): 1-140,25 (1989): 107-221.
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