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In the study effect on phosphocholine bilayers of cholesterol additive and of 7-DHC additive was compared depending on the lenght of phosphocholine acyl chain. Ultrasound absorption measurements were the basis of invastigations. They have shown that structurally similar cholesterol and 7-DHC molecue, by being more flat and elastic than a cholesterol molecule, more strongly binds with lipid molecules.
Prions of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae allow for the inheritance of complex traits based solely on the acquisition of cytoplasmic protein aggregates and confer distinctive phenotypes to the cells which harbor them, creating heterogeneity within an otherwise clonal cell population. These phenotypes typically arise from a loss-of-function of the prion-forming protein that is unable to perform its normal cellular function( s) while sequestered in prion amyloid aggregates, but the specific biochemical consequences of prion infection are poorly understood. To begin to address this issue, we initiated a direct investigation into the potential control that yeast prions exert over fungal lipid content by utilizing the prions [URE3] and [PSI+], the first two prions discovered in yeast. We utilized silica gel high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)—densitometry to conduct pair-wise quantifications of the relative levels of free sterols, free fatty acids, and triacylglycerols [petroleum ether—diethyl ether—acetic acid (80:20:1) mobile phase, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) detection reagent]; steryl esters and squalene (hexane—petroleum ether—diethyl ether—acetic acid (50:20;5:1), PMA]; and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol (chloroform– diethyl ether—acetic acid (65:25:4.5), cupric sulfate—phosphoric acid) in otherwise clonal prion-infected ([PSI+] or [URE3]) and prion-free ([psi−] or [ure-o]) cells in two growth phases: log-phase and stationary phase. Our analysis revealed multiple statistically significant differences (p < 0.00625) between prion-infected and prion-free cells. Interestingly, prion-induced changes varied dramatically by growth phase, indicating that prions exert differential influences on cell physiology between log and stationary growth. Further experimental replication and extension of the analysis to other prions is expected to resolve additional physiological effects of prion infection. This investigation demonstrates that HPTLC—densitometry is an effective method for studying prion-induced alterations in lipid content in yeast.
During the last few years a growing amount of data has accumulated showing phospholipid par tic i pa tion in nu clear sig nal transduction. Very re cent data strongly sup port the hy poth e sis that sig nal transduction in the nu cleus is au to nomic. Lo cal pro duc tion of inositol polyphosphates, be gin ning with the ac ti va tion of phospholipase C is required for their specific function in the nucleus. Enzymes which modify poly- phosphoinositols may control gene expression. Much less information is available about the role of other lipids in nuclear signal transduction. The aim of this minireview is to stress what is cur rently known about nu clear lipids with re spect to nu clear sig nal transduction.
A cationic oleic acid reversed micellar system was used to simplify and enhance the purification of bovine lactoferrin (Lfn) from whey. The rate of Lfn extraction by the application of 30 kHz supersonic treatment to the organic solvent phase (P < 0.01) was by 1.5 time higher compared to non-supersonic treatment. An increase in water content and the light scatter were observed in the organic phase when the supersonic treatment was applied. An increase in the efficiency of Lfn extraction by supersonic treatment of an organic phase was attributable to increased water dispersion in the organic solvent phase and an increase in the orientation of the cationic oleic acid towards microparticles of water in organic solvent phase.
Prażenie jest jedną z ważniejszych operacji technologicznych w procesie przerobu ziarna kakaowego, a warunki prażenia mają ogromny wpływ na jakość ziarna. Celem pracy było dobranie takiej temperatury i wilgotności względnej powietrza w procesie konwekcyjnego prażenia, aby zminimalizować migrację tłuszczu z jądra ziarna kakaowego do łuski i dzięki temu uzyskać korzystniejsze parametry ziarna kierowanego do dalszego przetwarzania. Ziarno kakaowe gatunku Ivory Coast prażono metodą konwekcyjną w stałej temperaturze (110, 135 i 150 [stopni]C); utrzymywano stałą prędkością przepływu powietrza (1,0 m/s) oraz wilgotność względną 0,30-0,97 i 5,0%.
Roasting is one of the most important technological unit operations in processing of cocoa beans; its conditions essentially determine the quality of the product. The aim of this research was to optimize the temperature and relative humidity of air used for convective roasting of cocoa beans in order to minimize migration of lipids from the kernel toward the husk and thus to improve properties of roasted material with respect to further steps of processing. Three temperatures (110, 135 and 150 [degrees]C) and two distinct values of relative air humidity (0.30-0.97 and 5.0%) were chosen at a constant air flow rate of 1.0 m/s for convective roasting of cocoa beans of Ivory Coast variety.
This study aims to analyze the lipid, carbohydrate and protein content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa after being treated with the tofu wastewater. The method used in this study was an experimental method with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment was performed by administering different concentrations of the tofu wastewater to the C. pyrenoidosa. The concentrations used were 10%, 15% and 20%. Determination of these concentrations was based on the preliminary test. The main parameters observed were the lipid, carbohydrate and protein content of C. pyrenoidosa and the supporting parameters were the growth rate, doubling time and characteristics of the tofu wastewater. The study was conducted for 8 days using the batch culture method. In the exponential phase, the microalgae were harvested and then their contents were analyzed. The data obtained were analyzed using MS Office Excel 2016. The highest content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of C. pyrenoidosa was in the treatment of 20% tofu wastewater, reaching 1.56%; 28.92%; and 28.92%, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest growth rate and the smallest doubling time in the treatment of 20% tofu wastewater accounted for 0.8264 day-1 and 0.0349 hours-1. Moreover, the rates of BOD and TSS of the tofu wastewater at the end of the study decreased. It can be concluded that administering different concentrations of the tofu wastewater can affect the lipid, carbohydrate and protein content of C. pyrenoidosa. It was suggested that further research is needed to conduct semi-continuous cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa using a higher density so that the results obtained can be optimized.
Background: There is little information regarding the effects of concurrent training (endurance and resistance training) on the fat profile, blood testosterone and cortisol response. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of concurrent training on the fat profile, blood testosterone and cortisol response in young male wrestlers. Material/Methods: Twenty-four young male wrestlers voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to three groups, namely: endurance training (ET, N=8), strength training (ST, N=8) and concurrent training (CT, N=8). The groups did their training programs three sessions per week. Results: The findings of this study showed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased by 33.54% in the strength group (P=0.02). Total Testosterone (TT) experienced a decrease by 30.68% in the endurance group (P= 0.02) and by 41.55% in the concurrent group (P=0.02). Cortisol (cor) increased by 55.73% in the endurance (P=0.00) and by 41.55% in the concurrent (P=0.02) group, respectively. Testosterone- to-Cholesterol ratio (TT:Cor) decreased by 125.80% by and 78.12% in the endurance (P=0.00) and concurrent (0.04) groups, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the decrease in HDL, an increasing trend in TT in the strength training group and also a decrease in TT and an improved lipids profile in the endurance and concurrent training groups can be a function of the training type.
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