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EN
We briefly review the limited application of marker assisted selection in past wheat breeding programmes, and contrast the current situation, where increasingly it has become feasible to tag almost any gene with a microsatellite assay. Although this capability is having an impact on the conduct of large breeding programmes, a much more profound change in breeding strategy will become possible when SNP technology has matured sufficiently so that the throughput of molecular marker-based genotyping will be able to keep pace with the numbers of plants that breeders can handle in the field. We discuss the considerations that will need to be addressed in the generation of a new breeding paradigm to take advantage of the genomics revolution.
EN
Molecular markers have become a useful tool simplifying and speeding up breeding work. They are also helpful in the genetic analysis of complex agronomic traits. The investigations concern the use of already available SCAR markers for molecular analysis of breeding materials. The markers are the apple powdery mildew resistance gene Pl2, originating from Malus zumi, and the apple scab resistance gene Vf, from M. floribunda 821. The clone U 211 was found to be highly resistant to mildew under field conditions and transmitted a high level of resistance to the majority of its progeny. The presence of the Vf gene conferring resistance to scab was confirmed by molecular analysis. As the molecular markers for the Pl2 gene are not present in the DNA of U 211, it is probable that the clone U 211 is a new source of mildew resistance.
EN
Great advances have been made in recent years in marker detection systems and in the techniques used to identify markers linked to useful traits. While RFLP markers have been the basis for most work in crop plants, useful markers have been generated using RAPD and AFLP methods. More recently, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been developed for major crop plants and this marker system is predicted to lead to even more rapid advances in both marker development and implementation in breeding programs. Identification of markers linked to useful traits has been based on complete linkage maps and bulked segregant analysis. However, alternative methods, such as the construction of partial maps and combination of pedigree and marker information, have also proved useful in identifying marker/trait associations. The value of markers in analysing the inheritance of traits in crop plants and understanding genome structure and organization is now well established. The different properties of markers systems and their applications in genome analysis and molecular breeding of cereals species are discussed.
EN
In the years 2011-2012, thirteen cultivars and breeding lines of Chinese origin adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis W.H. White) were evaluated for their selected breeding characters and seed protein content in the climatic conditions of Central Europe. In the field experiment, the evaluation included seedlings emergence, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and plant health status. In the laboratory research, the assessments included seed germination as well as seed dry matter and total protein contents. In Western Poland climatic conditions, it was possible to produce seeds of adzuki bean. However, in cold and wet years, they did not set seeds. The tested materials differed in plant emergence, earliness, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and plant health status. The produced seeds had germination capacity from 0 to 54% and no symptoms of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) damage. They also had from 20.01 to 31.91% of total proteins in d. m., which proved they could be a valuable source of plant protein. Amongst the evaluated materials, one breeding line (marked with the letter J) turned out to be the best, whereas the other one (marked Z1) was also interesting for further breeding work.
PL
W latach 2011-2012 trzynaście odmian i linii hodowlanych fasoli adzuki (Phaseolus angularis W.H. White) pochodzenia chińskiego, uprawianych w warunkach klimatycznych Europy Środkowej, było oceniane pod względem wybranych cech hodowlanych i zawartości białka ogółem w nasionach. W doświadczeniu polowym oceniano wschody, liczbę łuszczyn na roślinie, liczbę nasion w łuszczynie i stan zdrowotny roślin. Natomiast badania laboratoryjne obejmowały zdolność kiełkowania nasion, suchą masę i ogólną zawartość białka. Produkcja nasion fasoli adzuki w zachodniej Polsce była możliwa. Jednak w zimnym i wilgotnym roku 2012 nasion nie udało się pozyskać. Badane materiały różniły się we wczesności wschodów, liczbie łuszczyn na roślinie, liczbie nasion w łuszczynie i stanem zdrowotnym roślin. Wytworzone nasiona miały zdolność kiełkowania od 0 do 54%. Zawartość białka ogółem w pozyskanych nasionach wyniosła od 20,01 do 31,91% s.m., więc mogą one stanowić dodatkowe źródło cennego białka roślinnego. Wśród ocenianych odmian i linii hodowlanych jedna linia hodowlana (oznaczone literą J) okazała się najlepsza, natomiast druga (Z1) była również interesująca pod względem ocenianych w doświadczeniach cech hodowlanych.
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