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1
Content available remote The Freedom of the Body in the Semiotics and Philosophy of Sport
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Human Movement
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2011
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tom 12
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nr 4
378-384
EN
Purpose. The aim of this paper is to define the meaning of sports world records, which to attain require long years of strenuous training, within the sphere of humanistic and cultural values. The differences between newly placed records and previous scores are usually centimetres or hundredths of a second, which hardly contribute to the spectacularity of a competition. Is therefore setting a record more meaningful as a cultural, not a sports, goal? Methods. A semiotic-pragmatic method was used in this research. The method was founded on C.S. Peirce's semeiotics, which is a sign theory based on the triadic, relational concept of signs. Every sporting event, every individual achievement of an athlete is a sign, which acquires meaning due to its interpretation and being part of the so-called process of semiosis. Results. The popularity and cultural meaning of particular sports does not result from the immanent features of a sporting competition, such as its aesthetic merits or the dynamics of the game. The differences in times of the best runners in a prestigious 100 metre race are unperceivable to the human eye. The attraction stems from cultural factors, which are meaningful in the sphere of values of a given culture. One of such values in which sport relates to it is freedom. Conclusions. Striving for records, even at the cost of one's health, has (for the sports described in the article as contesting) a motivation in the cultural (philosophical) meaning of overcoming the limits of the human body's physical abilities. Every record set means that those limits have not yet been reached and therefore are still unknown. This spiritual freedom is accompanied by the equally vital, as confirmed by records, sense of physical unlimitedness.
2
Content available remote Apologia partytury
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EN
At the end of the twentieth century, the phenomenon of mass culture was the focus of scholarly attention with an ever increasing frequency: theorists of literature and cultural studies, as well as philosophers have developed a number of approaches to the study of popular culture: social, ideological and semiotic. Contemporary researchers are increasingly attracted to the question of the semiotic culture. In this regard, mass culture and accordingly literature are more and more frequently treated not only as a system of signs, but in fact as a sign itself. J. Lotman conducts his analysis through the prism of the literary process and his research methodology is based on literary methods. Once marginal (from the standpoint of the official literary and philosophical criticism), mass literature is going through the phase of ennoblement. It is dual-track in its “intergrowth” and is already facing up the oversignificant new system of modern cultural codes, while still being rooted in the low culture with its specific character of the text encoding. Therefore, following the principle of semiotic analysis, it is inevitable to take into account the interaction of several sign systems while considering the formative dynamics of the modern genrethemed version of popular literature.
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Content available remote Homo loquens и современная наука о человеке
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EN
The integration of sciences is necessary for multidimensional exploration and explanation of language functioning in real semiotic situations. Word meaning identification is only a step mediating a further search for personal interpretation in the process of spontaneous semiosis.
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Content available remote Speed Traps and the Right of Silence
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EN
As well as a study on the right of silence with regard to written texts, this paper also investigates the two cases in terms of icons and indices: a text may be indexical of a basic human right, and then may become an icon of that right. The European Court of Human Rights considers the particular section of the relevant statute as an icon of the "regulatory regime".
EN
„Mifologicheskie modeli i ritual’noe povedenie v sovetskom i postsovetskom prostranstve: sbornik stateĭ” Arkhipova, A. (Comp.), Moskva: TSentr tipologii i semiotiki fol’klora RGGU 2013, pp. 472The volume under discussion, entitled Мифологические модели и ритуальное поведение в советском и постсоветском пространстве, contains lectures that were delivered during a conference organized by the Centre for Typology and Semiotics of Folklore Studies of the Russian State University for the Humanities in September 2013. In this volume, based on rich source material, which has been shown from different perspectives, the following issues were discussed: visional transformation, celebrating of new rites, creating new rituals, magical practices and leaders’ images.
EN
The culture of signs is a recurrent term in philosophy. It does not allow mindless programs to win. Thanks to it, it is possible to put trust in model, holistic approaches rather than the linguistic determination of meanings. The process of departing from philosophical reflection, which has always been holistic, expressed with the diagram: ideas – notions – definitions, is here reversed. Presentations allow the return to ideas; ideas have more of the imaginary than the symbolic. The concept of the Body without Organs depicts a new form of sensualisation directed not at gaining permanent representations but at the possibilities of switching various functions of experience.
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The subject of the author’s research are literary texts of the chronicle type, read as texts rather than as sources of learning historical facts (in the case of historians) or the history of artistic forms (in the case of literature specialists). the author compares two chronicles from the same territory: The Żywiec Chronicles from the Ancient Times to 1845, written by Franciszek Augustin (mid-19th century) and Chronography by Jędrzej Komoniecki (early 18th century), attempting to employ a semiotic approach to interpreting them. the differences between the two analysed accounts result from changes in the reading of the world, which occurred between the early 18th century and the mid-19th century. this is visible for example in the methodology of hierarchizing the importance of facts and “finding” their meaning by the authors of the two chronicles. the 19th--century account largely conforms to the rigours of the genre, with its limitations with regard to poetics, rhetoric, forms, and techniques of presenting events. in Chronography, the limitations imposed by literary conventions are shattered by the force of the narrative, by searching for unusual things, curiositates, marvels, unexplained phenomena and wonders which can be observed at fairs and executions. in Komoniecki’s work, the rigours of the chronicler’s presentation are jumbled with the style of other accounts; poetics – and, most importantly, the related semiotics – intermingle. this is at odds with the style of the 19th-century chronicle, whose attention is focused on facts. On the basis of his observations, the author argues that the main task of a historian of culture should be to attempt to reconstruct “reading” competences, notions and most importantly semiotics, which “rule” perception, sequencing reality, separating, hierarchizing and legitimising “facts.” Consequently, the history of culture becomes also the history of communication, since the analysed texts also need to be seen in broad communication contexts. the author also argues that the reconstruction of the semiotics of both discussed chronicles requires an analysis of their texts as texts and capturing their various narrative strategies, poetics, rhetoric, topic, intertextual tensions resulting e.g. from the presence of elements of oral culture, information and structures of colloquial thinking, quotes and semi-quotes of folklore and scientific knowledge, literary topoi and old beliefs.
9
Content available Speed Traps and the Right of Silence
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Research in Language
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2011
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tom 9
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nr 1
165-176
EN
In two English cases which reached the European Court of Human Rights in the mid-2000s, it was argued that the statutory requirement on the part of a motorist who has been caught speeding to give the police information concerning the identity of the driver of the car at the time of the offence is a violation of the right of silence by which a person should not be put into a position that s/he incriminates him/herself. The right of silence is one of the conventional interpretations of Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. As well as a study on the right of silence with regard to written texts, this paper also investigates the two cases in terms of icons and indices: a text may be indexical of a basic human right, and then may become an icon of that right. The European Court of Human Rights considers the particular section of the relevant statute as an icon of the "regulatory regime".
10
Content available Le corps de Roland Barthes
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EN
The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between body and linguistic and literary signs in the work of Roland Barthes. The main problem is Roland Barthes thinking on semiotic representation of the body as an ambivalent process of selfconstruction and alienation.
PL
The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between body and linguistic and literary signs in the work of Roland Barthes. The main problem is Roland Barthes thinking on semiotic representation of the body as an ambivalent process of selfconstruction and alienation
11
Content available Keine Texte
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EN
The paper addresses an issue that is usually hardly noticed, but some may have become aware of during the COVID-19 pandemic: There are various situations in which texts justifiably seem to be missing. However, the lack of texts does not necessarily affect all participants of that non-existent communicative situation. What these situations have in common is that there are apparently no texts that fulfill the situational expectations. Nevertheless, it is possible to draw conclusions from the resulting voids. From our point of view, such implicatures should definitely be considered from a text- linguistic perspective, especially if one understands the communicative practice of a society in all its facets as part of an empirically approachable textual reality. Thus, on the basis of selected examples, we will show that under certain circumstances even ‘no texts’ do indeed ‘express’ something which we can infer based on knowledge and experience, on the one hand, depending on the specific reading situation, and on the other hand, in connection with certain socially relevant discourses.
Studia Slavica
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2013
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tom 17
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nr 2
141-152
EN
The article discusses two mystery novellas: The Grey-Eyed Demon by Jakub Arbes (1840–1914) and Michaela by Miloš Urban (b. 1967). Although the gap between the two texts is more than 130 years, a common influence of gothic novel is discernible in both of them. Each of the works, however, adapts this influence in different cultural and literary contexts. Arbes entered the world of Czech literature in the 1860s and his ambition was to create a genre of prose narrative that would be able to absorb both the techniques of high literature and the elements of popular reading. By achieving this, he wanted to create a modern literary genre. The Grey-Eyed Demon is an exemplary case of such an encounter. In this text, Arbes makes use of the devices of gothic fiction, whose romantic itinerary, however, the author tries to transform into a realistic mode of representation. Theencounter of two different sets of artistic techniques and principles in this romanetto, however, is not without some difficulties, represented by striking „seams“ that are discernible especially on the thematic and narrative levels. It is not without interest that, in the same year, Arbes published an important romanetto, entitled Saint Xaverius, in which these dividing lines are not as obvious – indeed, Saint Xaverius is one of the peaks of Arbes’s oeuvre. Urban’s novella is a different case of contextualisation of gothic fiction. Urban makes use of the genre’s devices in post-modern fiction, in which they serve an entirely different purpose. In this case, it is an indexical reference (thematisation) to an older genre, which had lost its direct lineage in literature. This reference takes place within a post-modern tendency, which might be understood as discourse overlapping, a palimpsest-like quality, a semantic game based on re-contextualisation of historicising themes, motifs and other elements.
EN
The volume under discussion, entitled Мифологические модели и ритуальное поведение в советском и постсоветском пространстве, contains lectures that were delivered during a conference organized by the Centre for Typology and Semiotics of Folklore Studies of the Russian State University for the Humanities in September 2013. In this volume, based on rich source material, which has been shown from different perspectives, the following issues were discussed: visional transformation, celebrating of new rites, creating new rituals, magical practices and leaders’ images.
14
Content available Testament naukowy Jurija Łotmana
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EN
Yuri Lotman started his research activity in the field of literary theory (widely: theory of culture) as orthodox structuralist at the beginning of the 1970s. The concept of structure has been based on the structural linguistic theories and adopted to develop research on literary works as well as “cultural texts”. The last ones concern the perception of structure not only in terms of the “level of expression”, but also the “level of content” that can be analysed with the use of peculiar procedures. The strict procedures rely on distinguishing the set of “binary oppositions” in the “structure of content” to illustrate the author’s perception of reality and his “model of the world”. Lotman was convinced that ideological and artistic structures are immersed in history. They have a dynamic nature (likewise the culture which was seen as the complicated “semiosphere” with its processes, predictable or unpredictable as well as the innovative “explosion” mechanisms). Therefore, Lotman in his later years moves away from cultural self-models based on “binary oppositions” to “ternary” system. In spite of the evident evolution of his concepts Lotman was always devoted to the doctrine of knowledge and never left the humanistic ideals using them for research purposes. The scientific models and sources of inspiration could be changeable, but pathos and scientific rationality never left him. His structuralism was at its peak with possibility of evolution, infinitely flexible, individual, accidental, unpredictable or even “explosive”, but never was the betrayal of previous ideals.
15
Content available remote Semiosis in History. The Emergence of Alter-Culture
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EN
Following upon Merlin Donald’s claim that human specificity emerges in history, and not exclusively in evolutionary time, it will be suggested that the diversified means of producing semiosis created by human beings account for the spread of empathy and altruism not only beyond the kin group, but to humankind in general. This amounts to treating other cultures as different from us, but still able to enter into communication with us (as an Alter), as opposed to treating these cultures as being part of nature, and thus only susceptible to being communicated about (as an Alius). Starting out from the theory of bio-cultural evolution defended by Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd, as well as from the multi-level selection theory of Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson, we try to lay bare the way in which semiotic structures play a role for transforming cultural evolution, contrary to biological evolution, into human history. We inquiry into what makes the existence of Alter-culture possible, if, as Sober and Wilson have claimed, armed with game theory, an altruistic society (an Ego-culture in our terms), is only possible in opposition to another group in relation to which group egoism rules (that is, in our terms, an Alius-culture). We will follow Michael Tomasello in arguing for the primacy of games of cooperation, rather than competition, while adding an historical dimension, which serves to explain how such cooperation can be extended beyond the primary group (our Ego-culture). However, we will insist on the importance of multiple semiotic resources for the boot-strapping of empathy and altruism, as well as on the genesis of this process in cultural encounters, as reflected in the spirit of the Enlightenment.
16
Content available Semiotics of Tobacco: the Case of Runeberg’s Pipe
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EN
The essay introduces an approach called the semiotics of tobacco by analyzing one narrative poem. The analyzed poem is Fänrik Stål (1848) by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, the national poet of Finland. Fänrik Stål is traditionally considered nationalistic and patriotic. When analyzed in the context of semiotic of tobacco, the traditional way to interpret it is challenged. In the end, this case analysis of Finnish literature is used as an example of broader problems in representing tobacco in literature in order to establish the approach of the semiotics of tobacco.
EN
The most important translations of the Bible into Polish, i.e. the Catholic Jakub Wujek Bible (1599) and the Protestant Gdańsk Bible (1632) were written at the end of the reformation period and were renewed and used in catholic churches and protestant communities until the first half of the 20th century. The reprints were systematically updated. In the 20th century the need to translate again the Holy Scripture into Polish was recognized. There were a few attempts at that in the second half of the previous century. They were always accompanied by heated debates which referred to the need of new translations as well the ways translators adopted to render in Polish selected books, sentences or even words. A religious text functions in a specific system of a higher level, i.e. religion. Religion is understood here as a culture text according to the Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School. Owing to this interpretation, religion has its own language built onto natural language. Text in natural language constitutes only a fragment of a bigger sign entity. To put it most simply, since a natural text is a subcomponent of a semiotic religious text, any change introduced in the former disrupts the coherence of cultural meaning on a higher level. Because of “a secondary modeling system” (a term coined by Yuri M. Lotman) the language of religious texts is always a bit archaic. This very modeling system prevents the propellers of modernization from a more thorough linguistic update of old biblical translations in Poland and, more often than not, does not let translators depart too far from the translation tradition. Translated by Agnieszka Bryła-Cruz
PL
The most important translations of the Bible into Polish, i.e. the Catholic Jakub Wujek Bible (1599) and the Protestant Gdańsk Bible (1632) were written at the end of the reformation period and were renewed and used in catholic churches and protestant communities until the first half of the 20th century. The reprints were systematically updated. In the 20th century the need to translate again the Holy Scripture into Polish was recognized. There were a few attempts at that in the second half of the previous century. They were always accompanied by heated debates which referred to the need of new translations as well the ways translators adopted to render in Polish selected books, sentences or even words. A religious text functions in a specific system of a higher level, i.e. religion. Religion is understood here as a culture text according to the Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School. Owing to this interpretation, religion has its own language built onto natural language. Text in natural language constitutes only a fragment of a bigger sign entity. To put it most simply, since a natural text is a subcomponent of a semiotic religious text, any change introduced in the former disrupts the coherence of cultural meaning on a higher level. Because of “a secondary modeling system” (a term coined by Yuri M. Lotman) the language of religious texts is always a bit archaic. This very modeling system prevents the propellers of modernization from a more thorough linguistic update of old biblical translations in Poland and, more often than not, does not let translators depart too far from the translation tradition.        Translated by Agnieszka Bryła-Cruz
EN
The article discusses the semiotic parameters of the locus of the study room in the Russian novel from the second half of the 19th century. It outlines the socio-cultural context that makes this locus topical in the works of the Russian novelists from the epoch after the reforms. The given examples of presence of the study room in the novels of I. Turgenev, I. Goncharov, F. Dostoevsky and L. Tolstoy are interpreted in several principle aspects: – objects in the composition and its selection – the relation character – material detail – semantic transformations and their motivation.
19
88%
Avant
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2016
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tom 7
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nr 1
EN
One hundred years on from the infamous premiere of The Rite of Spring, Stravinsky’sepoch-defining ballet continues to evoke controversy and contention in both musicological and performance circles. Even to call it a ballet is to overlook, or compound, its problematic identity. Throughout its life span, most audiences will have encountered, valorised and identified the work as a landmark of orchestral musical modernism heard primarily, perhaps even exclusively, in concert halls and on audio recordings with not a dancer, theatre stage or set in sight. Still to this day it thus remains one of music’s more remarkable split person- alities: bifurcated along formalist and contextualist lines by Stravinsky’s retrospective andopportunistic assertion that he had written “un oeuvre architectonique et non anecdotique.”
20
Content available remote Z dolu do dolu: Sémiotická esej o ostravských P(p)estrých vrstvách
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EN
The aim of the present study is to describe the theatrical environment in Ostrava where the identity of the region as a (former) mining power is performed on stage more than often. Central to the study is the analysis of an autobiographic novel Pestré vrstvy (Motley Layers) by an ex-miner Ivan Landsmann, adapted for stage by dramaturg Tomáš Vůjtek, and produced by director Janusz Klimsza in the underground mine Důl Hlubina. The key for the analysis is Yuri Lotman’s concept of signs pervading different cultural layers. The production was premiered in May 2011 and withdrawn in June 2014.
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