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Within the search for the roots of the Russian anarchistic movements, the study deals with the early aristocratic intelligentsia during the reign of Catherine II and Alexander I. Based on a biographic summary of the activity and analyses of the work of the writer of Catherine’s time Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev and the participant of the Dekabrist movement at the beginning of the 19th century Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev, the aim of the study is to prove the existence of the forming class of the intelligentsia and its clear influence on the subsequent Russian social or liberal movements, including the anarchists. The study points out mainly the problematic issue of serfdom, the critique of this phenomenon and the effort for its abolition. The question of serfdom is shown in the study as a theme, which most connected the early Russian intelligentsia and the anarchistic movement.
Focus of this article is on the way historians and researchers understand perhaps the most important intellectuals of the era of the rule of Tsarina Catherine the Great – Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev. The article goes in depth in its analysis of the standpoints of the most influential academic authors of the 20th century towards Radishchev. Based on the academic acclaim of his persona and Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, his renowned work, the article ponders upon whether his example can be used to illustrate the pattern of historiographic approach towards Russian intelligentsia as such or whether he stands out unprecedented to such a degree as a persona of Russian cultural and social history that no such general claims can be proposed. The study also debates whether the status of Radishchev amongst the Russian intelligentsia is justifiable based on his opinions or whether it comes as a product of Soviet historiography that brought upon Radishchev the profane title of “the first Russian revolutionary”.
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