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The article describes the achievements of Martti Ahtisaari as a politician, especially as a mediator in international conflicts, an activity for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008. The author presents Ahtisaari's involvement in the peace building process on three continents - with special attention on his work in Namibia, Indonesia and Kosovo. The negotiator's connections with intergovernmental and non-governmental institutions are underscored. The politician's activity as president of Finland is also highlighted in the aspect of his views on European integration. Additionally, the necessary qualities of a negotiator are discussed. The author makes ample use of Ahtisaari's own writings.
Content available remote NANC transmission in intestines and its pharmacological modulation
Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) nerve stimulation results in excitation (e.j.p., rebound depolarization, contractions) or inhibition (i.j.p., afterhyperpolarization, relaxations) of the gut. NANC neuronal mechanisms participate in the maintenance of the basal tone and spontaneous activity of the gut. There are however species differencies, i.e. both NANC excitation and inhibition are present in the guinea pig and only NANC inhibition in the rat intestine. Substance P-like neuropeptide/s are suggested to be mediators released from excitatory NANC and sensory nerves. The latter are activated by histamine and degenerated by capsaicin. There is evidence in favor of a nitric oxide-like substance rather than ATP, dopamin, GABA and neuropeptides (e.g. VIP, PHI/PHM) as the inhibitory NANC mediator in the gut. TTX, high Mg?+ -low Ca?+ media, 3,4-diaminopyridine, dipyridamol and adenosine deaminase modulate NANC excitation and inhibition. The NANC excitation is more sensitive than the NANC inhibition to the action of catecholamines, reserpine, 6-hydroxydopamine, chymotrypsin, , bacitracin, opioids, free oxygen species and low concentration of local anesthetics.
Risks connected with residential building have been analyzed. The risks of each participant of the Construction Financing Fund have been considered: the investor, the builder and the financial mediator. A special attention is paid to imperfection of the present normative-legal basis, which regulates activity of all participants of the residential building. Different kinds of risk insurance in building sector have been studied. Possible organizational methods and steps of notification and minimization of the risks in residential building have been proposed. The article recommends to secure financing of residential building with the help of The Construction Financing Fund aimed at rising safety of the investment financial costs and effective risk management.
Eicosanoids are known to play important roles in cell-cell communications and as intracellular signals that are critical components of multi-cellular responses such as acute inflammation and reperfusion injury. Recent findings have given rise to several new concepts that are reviewed here regarding the generation of eicosanoids and their impact in inflammation. Lipoxins (LX) are trihydroxytetraene-containing eicosanoids that can be generated within the vascular lumen during platelet-leukocyte interactions and at mucosal surfaces via leukocyte-epithelial cell interactions. During these cell-cell interactions, transcellular biosynthetic pathways are used as major LX biosynthetic routes, and thus, in humans, LX are formed in vivo during multi-cellular responses such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, and in asthma. This branch of the eicosanoid cascade generates specific tetraene-containing products that serve as stop signals, in that they regulate key steps in leukocyte trafficking and prevent leukocyte-mediated acute tissue injury. Of interest here are recent results indicating that aspirin's mechanism of action also involves the triggering of novel carbon 15 epimers of LX or 15-epi-LX that mimic the bioactions of native LX. Here, an overview of these recent developments is presented, with a focus on the cellular and molecular interactions of these novel antiinflammatory lipid mediators.
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