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EN
In Poland black locust grows generally in parks, gardens and along roads and in forests as well. During dendrological inventories specialists often need information about age of a tree. Simple noninvasive methods utilize mainly relation between age and size of a tree. One of such methods is mathematical formula describing relation between tree's diameter (or circumference) and its age. The main objectives of the presented paper is to elaborate such formulae for trees growing either in forests stands or in an open space (single tree, trees alley or small groups). Relations between tree's age and circumference were analyzed on the background of measured trees growing in forests administrated by the State Forests National Forest Holding from a whole territory of Poland. The formulae describing relation between tree's age and circumference were developed based on 20,302 database records for trees growing in forest stands and 6267 records for trees growing in an open space. In both cases power functions showed the best matching (tab. 1) in 95% confidence interval and which lead to construction of the age tables (tab. 2 and 3). Both elaborated formulae were tested and checked out with four series of measurement data. Three control series (1 – 'Siemianice', 2 – 'WPN' and 3 – 'Zielonka') show compatibility with analysed formulae, while the fourth one (4 – ‘Poznan') differed substantially. The probable reason of such situation lies in the fact that this series represented trees growing in urban conditions and having completely different growth rate.
PL
Koncentracje metali ciężkich były badane w profilach pionowych w osadach aluwialnych akumulowanych w zakolu Małej Panwi, wypływającej w zachodniej części Górnego Śląska. Maksymalne koncentracje Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb i Zn obserwowane w każdym z profili odzwierciedlają maksymalne ładunki tych pierwiastków zrzucane wraz ze ściekami głównie z zakładów chemicznych w Tarnowskich Górach i z huty cynku w Miasteczku Śląskim. Znajomość wieku tych zrzutów zanieczyszczeń umożliwiła określenie także wieku najbardziej zanieczyszczonych warstw. Głębokość występowania pików metali ciężkich tego samego wieku zmienia się gwałtownie pomiędzy kolejnymi odsypami w migrującym lateralnie zakolu rzeki. Osady akumulowane około 1960 roku występują na głębokości 130 cm w odległości 10 m od obecnego koryta, na głębokości 50 cm w odległości 30 m i tylko 15 cm od powierzchni w odległości 45 m od koryta. Również, zmienność koncentracji chromu i talu w osadach, pierwiastków których wielkości zrzucanych ładunków nie były monitorowane, pozwoliła na ocenę wielkości okresu maksymalnego zanieczyszczenia nimi Małej Panwi. Chronologia akumulacji osadów w badanym zakolu została potwierdzona za pomocą datowania porastających je drzew i przez nałożenie dwóch XX w. edycji map.
EN
Heavy metal concentrations have been investigated in vertical profiles of the Mala Panew River sediments, Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Peaks of the Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations observed reflect the highest loads of these elements discharged with sewage effluents from chemical plants in Tarnowskie Góry and zinc smelter plants in Miasteczko Śląskie. The known dates of the highest pollution loads allow for fine unit stratigraphy using metal concentrations. The depths of heavy metal peaks of the same age change abruptly between point bar sediments accumulated in actively migrating channel bend. Sediments accumulated at 1960 occur at the depth 130 cm 10 mfrom the present river channel, whereas at the 50 cm depth-30 mfrom the channel and at 15 cm depth-45 m from the channel. Moreover, the timing of the pollution with thalium and chromium, which have never been monitored in sewage effluents, has been estimated. The sediment accumulation chronology obtained is supported by the tree age dating and channel changes on the twentieth 's century maps.
EN
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the age of parent tree stand on selected physical properties of Norway spruce seeds to improve the efficiency of seed separation processes. Seeds were harvested in a forest complex located in the seed zone No. 202, in the municipality of Kruklanki in the Borki Forest District (N Poland) during mast years (1999, 2004, 2007 and 2012). The experimental material comprised of Norway spruce seeds from three differently aged tree stands (86, 119 and 129 years old in the first harvest year). The following measurements were performed for each seed: terminal velocity – with a pneumatic classifier; length and width – with a laboratory microscope; thickness – with a thickness gauge; angle of external friction – on an inclined plane, in two positions on a steel friction plate, and mass – with a laboratory scale. The results were used to calculate the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters, aspect ratio, sphericity index and density of seeds. The values of the analyzed properties were compared with ANOVA for factorial designs and linear correlation analysis. The results of the study indicate that Norway spruce seeds obtained from cones harvested in 2012 are characterized by the highest thickness and, consequently, by the highest values of the aspect ratio and sphericity index. The age of parent trees significantly influences the majority of physical properties of seeds. However, the patterns of observed changes are difficult to interpret due to the impact of weather conditions and the genetic potential of parent trees, which perform differently in response to changing climate and geomorphological conditions. Over the analyzed 13−year period a gradual increase was noted in the width, geometric mean diameter, aspect ratio and sphericity index of seeds, whereas the length and density of seeds decreased. Therefore, Norway spruce seeds should be separated mostly with the use of mesh screens with longitudinal openings, pneumatic separators and graders. The use of those devices, separately or in combination, for sorting Norway spruce seeds into mass fractions could contribute to more uniform seedling emergence when every seed fraction is sown separately.
EN
This study focused on how the concentration of volatile oils in Scots Pine needles varied in relation to the age of the trees, the age of the needles and their location within the canopy. Study material were pine needles from 15-, 44- and 89-year-old pine stands. The mean content of oils increased with the age of trees. The averaged oil content in needles was: 0.46% in the 15-year-old stand, 0.55% in the 44-year-old and 0.61% in the 89-year-old stands. The mean content of volatile oils decreased with the age of the needles. 1-year-old needles contained the highest concentration of volatile oils (0.56%), and the 3-year-old needles contained the least (0.48%). In 15-year-old stands the oil content in needles increased linearly with their height in the canopy. In 44-year-old (age class IIb) and 89-year-old (age class Va) stands oil content was greater lower in the canopy than in the middle.
PL
Badania dotyczą zmienności zawartości olejku eterycznego w igliwiu sosny zwyczajnej w zależności od wieku drzew, garnituru igieł oraz jego usytuowania w koronie. Materiał do badań stanowiło igliwie zebrane z drzewostanów sosnowych w wieku 15, 44 i 89 lat. W przeprowadzonych badaniach średnia zawartość olejków wzrastała wraz z wiekiem drzew. W igliwiu pochodzącym z 15-letniego młodnika zawartość olejku wynosiła średnio 0,46%, a w igliwiu drzewostanów 44- i 89-letnich odpowiednio 0,55 i 0,61%. Średnia zawartość olejku maleje wraz z wiekiem igliwia. Najwięcej olejku zawiera igliwie jednoroczne - 0,56%, najmniej igliwie trzyletnie - 0.48%. W drzewostanie 15-letnim stwierdzono wyraźny wzrost wydajności olejków eterycznych w kierunku od nasady korony do części wierzchołkowej. W drzewostanach starszych (IIb i Va klasy wieku), gdzie korony są wyżej osadzone, igliwie pobrane z nasady korony zawierało więcej olejku niż z partii środkowej.
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