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EN
Post-Gothicism in Latvian architecture in parallel to Mannerism in visual and applied arts is interpreted as a specific branch of the late Renaissance and Baroque period, with a definite group of form-related elements which repeat the aesthetics of the previous stylistic system. In Latvian building culture, forms of this type are most often found in sacral architecture, in buildings which were put up between the 1580s and the 1660s. Building traditions which were indebted to the architecture of the late Gothic style disappeared at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, when the Reformation caused a serious break in the structure of religious culture. The return of stylized Gothic forms in Renaissance and Baroque artistic systems, therefore, cannot be seen as a direct continuation of the traditions of Gothic style. The Latvian word 'pecgotika', or 'Post-Gothicism', which derives from the German 'Nachgotik', describes this phenomenon with all due accuracy, as far as this author is concerned. Post-Gothic elements in Latvian sacral architecture can be found at the morphological level, i.e., as a stylized application of specific constructive and decorative architectural details. These consciously utilized 'quotes' from the Gothic lexicon in each instance involve the repeating of or emphasis on a concrete element. The stylization of Gothic elements in the architecture of churches is inviolably woven together with the artistic systems of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. This allows us to say that Post-Gothicism in the Latvian building arts did not shape an independent style. Rather, it was a stylistic breakaway, a branch which took an aestheticizing approach toward the several of the formal decorative techniques which were used in the already-gone artistic system of the past.
ARS
|
2015
|
tom 48
|
nr 2
192 – 198
EN
The aim of the paper was to examine how the art historian topic of mannerism has been constructed in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet bloc. In the case of Czech art history a discourse on the subject was almost entirely conditioned by the local specifics of art history and cultural traditions. The study follows chronologically major authors and their interpretation of mannerism (Max Dvořák, Jaromír Neumann, Eliška Fučíková, Pavel Preiss).
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EN
In Bohemian literary sources the terms 'Baroque' and 'Baroque literature' are not clarified, defined, or generally accepted. Some scholars talk about the birth or establishment of Baroque thought in the Bohemian Lands as having taken place about 1550. A frequent view is that Baroque literature began to assert itself in the Bohemian Lands shortly before the Battle of the White Mountain (1620). One also occasionally hears the opinion that Baroque literature did not begin in the Bohemian Lands till the 1680s. In dictionaries and other works concerned with literary theory and history the term 'Baroque literature' is normally linked with the theme of the fleetingness of life and of all earthly things and with the vivid depiction of the four last things (heaven, hell, death, and judgement), especially death. In Czech literature, one finds these themes most often in the period from the third quarter of the sixteenth century to the third quarter of the seventeenth century. Increased interest in death and fleetingness is, however, linked not only with Baroque thought but also, at least to the same extent, with late humanist thought. It is precisely the predilection for theatricality, frequently mentioned in connection with Baroque literature, which is linked with the humanist predilection for the expressively drawn backdrop of the story or interpretation and with the late humanist conception of the world as a theatre and of human life as a theatrical role. Other features of Baroque literature are said to be, for example, its dynamism, the attempt to intensify impression and expression, high dramatic tension and overstressing, and the use of paradox. If, for example, we look for dynamism and paradox in Czech literature of the period from the 1620s to the 1670s, we find it - as in the pre-White-Mountain literature - to be relatively marginal. The literature of 1600-80 changed very slowly. Writers probably began to search for new sources of inspiration and in some cases enlarged the circles of authors and works they considered authorities. Apart from Classical Antiquity and patristics in the literary work of the second and last third of the seventeenth century, an ever greater role was played by the literary tradition of the High Middle Ages. Folklore also became an increasingly important source of inspiration for writers. In addition, the relationship between the writer, language, and the printed word underwent certain changes. Language, on the one hand, was closely linked with the attitude to one's native region and country and to the tradition of catholicity; on the other hand, the possibilities of language were gradually being made relative: writers became increasingly conscious that much remained inexpressible with words, and even took refuge from time to time in the declaration -often stylized - about their own inability to express certain things in words.
ARS
|
2015
|
tom 48
|
nr 2
179 – 191
EN
The article analyses the issues related to the mannerism of Croatian art historian Grgo Gamulin (1910 - 1997) as a prime example for a possible interpretation, which allows a view to the methodological and ideological positions of an art historian in the post-war period in a communist country. His appreciation of mannerism has been fully manifested in the article Mannerism between contradictory views (1960). The mannerism is not rated negative as a style of aesthetic degeneration, but grasped in its historical meaning, whereby the tendencies of expressive and spiritualising mannerism are evaluated positively and those of the so-called epigonic and mimetic mannerism marked negative.
EN
The contribution focuses on the file of late Renaissance painted epitaphs from the historical territory of the so called Bohemian Silesia, though there is a range of monuments of unclear provenience. Nevertheless, they can be connected with Silesian environment being connected with specific iconography comprising mainly the motive of Allegorical Crucifixion. This unequivocally points at commemorative and representative monuments as well as peculiar 'confessional media', referring about the confession of its customers. Therefore it appears that so far used predominantly formally-analytical approach to these problems requires also examining even the complex social background of epitaph monument, which often speaks in their iconographic themes with distinct confessional language.
EN
In today’s Latvia, only a few bay windows older than the rich historical quotes of the 19th century Historicist period are on view in their original locations. A bay window built in the mid-17th century has survived in the northwest corner of Riga Castle; this is the only such ancient structure in Latvia whose artistic quality permits comparisons to other Mannerist and Baroque examples of Northern Europe. Especially significant in Latvia’s history of architecture and art are the decorative reliefs on the bay window façades. This article aims to bring together the information we have so far and include changes resulting from the latest studies. This means giving a precise picture of how much and what exactly has been preserved from the original bay window construction and analyse its architectonic and artistic significance in the context of Riga’s 17th century architecture, while adding new facts to the known construction history. The walls of the Riga Castle bay window are made of a stone framework with decoratively treated slabs filling the space between the uprights and profiled horizontal cornices beneath the window openings. Each storey has a separate small, octagonal premise with doors leading to the rooms inside the block. The initial openings of the bay window were twice as high as those visible now. The stone walls were doubled inside with a half-timbered construction. Regardless of the details transformed over time, they give an idea of the artistic expression of the original reliefs and the programmatic message of the bay window’s décor. Even in the form of copies, this clearly demonstrates the artistic and architectural tendencies of a particular epoch, remaining among the most significant examples of 17th century Northern European Mannerist sculpture in Latvia.
EN
Mannerism used to be considered as an expression of decadence in long periods of literary history. Its aestheticism, declension from the phenomena of trivial experience, self-complacent game with its own potential and accentuation of rhetoric were understood as an expression of a sophistical attitude. The value of mannerism is really situated in the auto-reflective gesture, in conscious shaping of processes of its own conception. Positive re-interpretation of this mannerist auto-referential is connected with the changes within the perspectives of literary scholarship, which in the position of post-structuralism shows increased sensitiveness to similar phenomena. In German environment, deconstruction and system theory are those that intensely approximate to these problems. In this optics it is just needed to subject to post-structuralistic analysis the poetics of one of the most remarkable representatives of Italian mannerism, Giovanni Battista Marino. The aim of this analysis is to detect the meaning of auto-reflection as a constitutive principle yet, before the start of 'modernity'. Particularly this analysis will refer to 'Narcissus- and echo-poems' (Narziss- und Echo-Gedichte) of Marino's 'La Galeria'. Here, according to my thesis, the problem of auto-reflection, culminates in a special way. One of the reasons of this is Marino's reference of shaping the Narcissus' myth in Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'. It will manifest in which way the myth as a rhetorical-topological meta-myth was accepted in a imaginative lyrical poetry and made functional regarding to the elaborated auto-poetic concept. Recourse to Horace's statement 'ut picture poiesis' is important which is specifically modified by Marino. His Narcissus poems in relation of the image and poem show the mimetic function of literature which became problematic in the inter-textual concept of 'memoria'.
EN
On 24 May 2012 a poster ‘From the Gothic Style to Art Nouveau’ appeared in the west-side staircase vestibule of Rundale Palace, next to the entrance door to the west-side block. Behind that door, a quite dark and mysterious world opens up, very different to the light and playful environment of the Palace designed by Rastrelli. Museum staff have named this new exposition rather conventionally – DEKO. Decorative arts are always placed behind their nobler sisters as the fine arts are thought to top the hierarchy. Nevertheless, decorative arts have been most closely related to people’s daily life. In Latvia, much evidence of our cultural history has perished as a result of wars, revolutions and social transformations. Not all European countries have a special museum of decorative arts, but in Latvia the chance to see close-up examples of canonical historical styles is even more limited. Already in the 1960s there was the idea to create a chronologically and stylistically arranged exposition of decorative arts in the Rundale Palace Museum. Besides purchases from antique shops and loans from other museums in Latvia, another way to enrich the collections was taking over items from the churches of Latvia; their tragic fate in the conditions of Soviet occupation became even worse after the ideological action of 1961 when congregations were liquidated. Apart from wood-carved altars, pulpits, benches, sculptures, altarpieces and votive plaques, the Museum also received many silver and tin items, and they did fit well with the idea of a future exposition of decorative arts. Besides churches, the Museum also systematically inspected manor houses. Much was salvaged from these too at the last moment – stoves, doors, parquetry, decorative reliefs or metalwork fittings. Already then it was evident that all this should be part of the future exposition. The DEKO exposition envisages demonstrating all historical styles from the 15th century till World War I in fourteen rooms, beginning with late Gothic and ending with Art Nouveau and Neo-Classicism. The idea is to show both the major line of stylistic development in Western Europe and the reflection of these styles in Latvia.
EN
The cause of concentration of the auto-referential model of literature can be theoretically proved on disappearing referentiality. It can be proved also by the means of the insight into the work of La Pittura that mannerism is far more (post) modern than it could have appeared prima facie. The theoretical and methodological data are to be verified on the particular interpretations so that they do not lose their legitimacy. This pays chiefly on 'newer theories', particularly on the system theory and deconstruction, which are only about to achieve their reputation in the interpretation practice and to prove their potential for working with literary texts. Irritation caused by both positions mentioned is obvious since they radically refuse the target principle of hermeneutics i. e. complete decipherment of the meaning of the text. Despite of this, both theories offer a notion inventory, which enables describing some phenomena of the literary texts not possible to seize by the means of the traditional hermeneutic instruments. A meaningful interconnection of these two theories can even multiply this potential. The problem of the paradoxical 'autopoesy' had been defined already in Goedel's proof of equivocation, which shows the impossibility of applying formalized systems on one's self. The ideas of auto-reflection and deconstruction of the onto-theological ideology of presence, however, are not new, as is proved also by our interpretation of Ovid and Marino. But, in the context of modernism and postmodernism they become more visible. Despite that, such tendencies can be observed also in the different periods in which these problems were discussed with the similar intensity, e. g. the silver period of the Roman literature or baroque. It is therefore needed and purposeful to modify the existing post-structuralist data so that they enable adequate seizing of the 'pre-modern' auto-reflective literary models.
ARS
|
2011
|
tom 44
|
nr 1
26-44
EN
The article deals with Max Dvořákk’s handling of Mannerism, exemplified on Tintoretto’s “Crucifixion” in Scuola Grande di San Rocco in Venice. In Mannerist pictures, he found ruptures, symptoms and disturbing traits. To him, all artefacts of this artistic style originated as embodiments of the pure spirituality. He didn’t regard the Mannerist era as an epoch of crisis (as did Alois Riegl and other philosophers and art historians), but as an epoch of subjectivism.
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