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EN
The culture of signs is a recurrent term in philosophy. It does not allow mindless programs to win. Thanks to it, it is possible to put trust in model, holistic approaches rather than the linguistic determination of meanings. The process of departing from philosophical reflection, which has always been holistic, expressed with the diagram: ideas – notions – definitions, is here reversed. Presentations allow the return to ideas; ideas have more of the imaginary than the symbolic. The concept of the Body without Organs depicts a new form of sensualisation directed not at gaining permanent representations but at the possibilities of switching various functions of experience.
EN
In the case of television images, and the meanings they carry, symbolic interaction mainly concernshuman communities. At the moment when signs and things do not match each other, when theimage, in this case – television, no longer reflects the truth about reality, participation in the space ofthe text and image becomes complex and difficult to read. In the new media space in which old andnew media collide, it becomes necessary to have specific skills in reading messages, ways of seeingand perceiving media images, and competences in various reception areas referred to as media literacy.The lack of time for ourselves makes it easy for television stations to influence our receivingpreferences and attitudes by means of the audiovisual productions they broadcast. A given image isalways associated with some social context which, in turn, has an impact on this image. A particulargroup of viewers brings specific interpretations and observations to a given image, thus influencingits meaning and impact. Carried out in terms of both hermeneutics and semiotics, the analysis andinterpretation of television visual representations will depend on the contexts taken from the life ofthe recipient.
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Content available remote Społeczne konteksty kształtowania się wiedzy w pragmatyzmie Ch. S. Peirce’a
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EN
One of the most important problems in philosophy is the question: how to justify our scientific knowledge – and more specifically – of synthetic inferences? C. S. Peirce disagrees with the solutions proposed by Kant or Mill. An integral part of his philosophy is the triadic concept of the sign, which is constitutive for Peirce’s epistemology. Building scientific knowledge is an endless process in the interpretation of signs. It does not grasp the object directly and in its entirety, but rather requires interpretation from the perspective of various researchers. There is no scientific procedure which leads to the necessary and ultimate results. This opinion implies that only a community – and more closely an unrestricted community of researchers – can be the subject of really valid and true knowledge. Scientific practice is a form of public discourse which is based on, not only methodological, but above all ethical principles. The success of science depends largely on the ethics of cooperation framed by this discourse.
PL
Jednym z najważniejszym problemów filozofii jest pytanie o uprawomocnienie wiedzy naukowej lub wnioskowań syntetycznych. Peirce nie zgadzał się z rozwiązaniami zaproponowanymi przez Kanta lub Milla. Przyjmował za konstytutywną dla własnej epistemologii triadyczną koncepcję znaku. Budowanie wiedzy naukowej jest jego zdaniem nieskończonym procesem interpretacji znaków. Przedmiot poznania nie może być uchwycony bezpośrednio i w całości, ale wymaga interpretacji z perspektywy różnych badaczy - podmiotów. Nie istnieje naukowa procedura, która prowadzi do koniecznych i ostatecznych rezultatów. Taka opinia prowadzi do stwierdzenia, że jedynie nieograniczona wspólnota badaczy może być podmiotem prawomocnej i prawdziwej wiedzy. Praktyka naukowa jest formą dyskursu publicznego, opartego na zasadach metodologicznych, ale także na etycznych. Sukces nauki za leży w dużej mierze od etyki kooperacji w ramach dyskursu.
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Content available remote JEDYNE W POLSCE TAKIE MUZEUM - MUZEUM NEONÓW
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PL
Zapewne niewielu Polaków – głównie warszawiaków, zachowało w pamięci obraz Warszawy z początku lat 60., a szczególnie jej nocnego oblicza. Stolica ze swoimi neonami, które stanowiły niejako jej „wizytówkę”, jawiła się podówczas, jako namiastka europejskiej metropolii. W miastach naszego kraju po wojnie, neony zaczęły pojawiać się we wczesnym PRL-u. Na początku z oporami władzy, gdyż były wyrazem tęsknoty za światem zachodnim z jego stylem życia. Spełniały także wieloraką rolę: doświetlały słabo oświetlone ulice, ubarwiały frontony nowych, zazwyczaj szarych, domów. Starym zaś, ocalałym z pożogi wojennej kamienicom, dodawały pewnego uroku i tajemniczości. Dla ludzi wieczorem powracających z pracy, nocnych seansów filmowych, sztuk teatralnych lub też innych „imprez”, neony były czymś w rodzaju świetlnych drogowskazów, wskazujących przy okazji niezbyt liczne, na dodatek zamykane wcześnie, placówki handlowe, punkty usługowe, czy lokale gastronomiczne.Na przełomie lat 50. i 60., za zgodą ówczesnych włodarzy miasta, przybywało neonów niczym grzybów po deszczu. Wśród nich zdarzały się niekiedy prawdziwe perełki – dzieła sztuki, których twórcami byli doskonali, nierzadko wybitni graficy-projektanci. W ostatnich latach w Warszawie można zaobserwować fakt braku szacunku ze strony władz miasta dla współczesnej jego historii, widoczny chociażby przy podejmowaniu nieodpowiedzialnych, wręcz szkodliwych w skutkach decyzji o likwidacji pamiątkowych, a do niedawna jeszcze istniejących neonów. W stolicy daje się zauważyć szybko zachodzące przemiany: zmieniają się najemcy lokali handlowych i usługowych, zmieniają się ich funkcje, poszczególne instytucje przemieszczają się w inne lokalizacje, bądź ulegają likwidacji. Procesy te w konsekwencji prowadzą do nieodwracalnych strat w „świecie” stołecznych neonów. Jest to najwyższy czas, aby ratować to, co jeszcze z dawnych znaków świetlnych Warszawy pozostało. Należy zatem z niemałą satysfakcją odnotować fakt, iż w Warszawie – dzięki usilnym staraniom Ilony Karwińskiej, polskiej artystki-fotografki, na stałe zamieszkałej w Londynie, przy wsparciu jej męża, anglika Davida Hilla, po latach i wielu czynionych zabiegach udało się powołać do życia Muzeum Neonów. Od 2005 r. bez stałego lokum, dziś z siedzibą przy ul. Mińskiej 25 na Pradze, Muzeum Neonów jest prywatnym przedsięwzięciem, prowadzonym przy skromnej pomocy Fundacji Neon. Nie wspierają go też żadne środki publiczne, funkcjonuje dzięki wolontariuszom, a czynne jest od czwartku do soboty w godz. 12-17 oraz w niedzielę godz. 12-16.
PL
The article is an attempt to read the story The Maidens of Wilko by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz in the light of Gilles Deleuze’s book Proust and Signs. The interpretation key is the concept of “sign” proposed and developed by the French philosopher.
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Content available remote THE ONLY SUCH MUSEUM IN POLAND - THE NEON MUSEUM
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EN
Probably only a few Poles, mainly Varsovians, remember the way Warsaw looked in the early 1960s, and in particular the appearance of the capital at night. Together with its neon lights, which comprised a sui generis “showcase”, Warsaw appeared to be a substitute for a European metropolis. Neon signs started appearing in assorted post-war Polish towns at the onset of People’s Poland. Initially, they encountered the resistance of the authorities, since they expressed a longing for the Western world and its lifestyle. Neon lights also fulfilled numerous functions: they additionally illuminated insufficiently lit streets, enhanced the, as a rule, grey facades of new housing and added allure and an aura of mystery to old town houses, survivors of wartime conflagrations. For people returning in the evening from work, film shows, theatres or other “events”, neon lights acted as special signposts indicating the location of rather scarce shops, service outlets, or restaurants, cafes and bars, which closed early. At the turn of the 1960s the town authorities consented to an upsurge of neon lights. Some proved to be genuine works of art, whose authors included excellent and at times outstanding graphic artists-designers. Recent years have shown a lack of respect on the part of the Warsaw authorities for the modern history of the capital, discernible in irresponsible and outright harmful decisions about the elimination of historical and still existing neon lights. The capital has become the scene of great transformations: leaseholders of trade and service venues are changing, as are the latter’s functions, while particular institutions are moved or outright closed. The consequences of those processes include irreversible losses of neon signs. It is high time to save remnants of the old neon lights of Warsaw. More the reason to note with great satisfaction that the persistent efforts of Ilona Karwińska, a Polish art photographer residing permanently in London, supported by her English husband, David Hill, have resulted in the opening of the Neon Museum after years of numerous initiatives. It 2005 the Museum was still without a permanent gallery, but today it is situated in 25 Mińska Street in the district of Praga. The Neon Museum is a private enterprise, conducted thanks to the modest help of Fundacja Neon. It does not enjoy the support of public funds, functions thanks to volunteers, and is open from Thursday to Saturday (noon - 17 pm) and on Sunday (noon- 16 pm).
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Content available Gatunek pamięci zbiorowej. Rekonesans
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EN
Collective memory, defined as ‘acollection of imagesof community members about their past which are included in cultural texts,’ (Wójcicka 2015: 68), ‘images about the past activated in the process of social communication in order to meet the cul-tural and political needs of the present’ (Czachur 2018: 11), is unavailable directly. It can be reached only through representation of the past expressed in different kinds of signs. Thus, collective memory has the character of a sign. Based on that assumption, the author presents the style and genre diversity of collective memory. She shows the role of language style in collective memory and puts forward a ques-tion about what function speech genre has in remembering, recalling, reminding and forgetting. She presents complex relations between memory and speech genre, which she treats as a sign of oblivion. In the last part of the article, the author offers a typology of memory genres distinguishing primarily (intentionally) mnemonic and secondarily(functionally) mnemonic genres.
FR
Roland Barthes was not only a literary theorist, a critic or a semiotician. Above all, he was concerned with signs, symbols and representations which shape the everyday life and nourish both identities of the individual subject and the social group. As the world celebrates in 2015 the centenary of his birth, the question of his intellectual and literary legacies has never been more relevant. In the large scope of his works, L’Empire des signes, published in 1970 following several trips to Japan, is rather a particular piece which hinges on a specific combination of text and images. By looking at the structure of Barthes’s work and the relationship between the author’s discourse and the meanings released through the images, this paper aims to highlight the poetics of the image as a founding element in L’Empire des signes. The study of three categories of images used in the volume and their confrontation with the author’s developments shed new light on the contribution of the iconographic element towards a valuable understanding of signs and significations.
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Content available Język jako system znaków
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EN
We have to deal with numerous signs in everyday life, given us both by the nature – as, for example, clouds being a sign of upcoming rain, and also traditional, conventional signs and created by ourselves for better communication. A sign is a perceptible arrangement of things or a phenomenon caused by someone else for the reason that some set expression or formed customary rules govern combining a definite type of thoughts with this arrangement of things or the phenomenon.
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The purpose of this text is to present a specific view on didactics, its theories and practical perspectives. The author intends to show theoretical considerations describing the issue of the symbol in teaching in the scope of educational tasks in a contemporary school. The implementation of this aim requires the reconstruction of the basic determinants of the symbol itself and its ontological approach to the didactics of the symbol. I am convinced that the symbol can become a category of humanistic theory for general education, showing its implementation capabilities.
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Content available CИМУЛЯЦИЯ
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RU
The adverse effects of simulation on the phenomenal reality of a principal cultural institution - the language are viewed here. Bid to identify and put into shape everything captures anything and everything that has no nature and is understood as things existent. Speculative substitutions of a live "here is"-reality for its significant and indicative alternative lead to the validation of a reality that is not involved in existence.
EN
Research has shown that spoken languages differ from each other in their representation of space. Using hands, body, and physical space in front of signers to represent space, do sign languages differ from each other? To what extent are they similar to spoken languages in their expressions of spatial relations? The present study targeted these questions by exploring the descriptions of static situations in sign languages (Turkish Sign Language, Croatian Sign Language, American Sign Language) and spoken languages, including co-speech gestures (Turkish, Croatian, and English). It is found that signed and spoken languages differ from each other in their linguistic constructions for the left/right and front/back spatial relation. They also differ from one another in their mapping strategies. Crucially, being a signer does not require more direct iconic mappings than a speaker would use. It is also found that co-speech gestures can complement spoken language descriptions.
EN
In the preface to the “Seven Books of History against the Pagans” Orosius announces that he will present different disasters which affected mankind throughout history, and mentions among them thunderbolt strikes. The article aims at analysing the descriptions of this phenomenon from the point of view of their circumstances, time, results and meanings. The study shows that although the circumstances are different, it was always God who sent down the lightning strikes and spoke through them. Orosius dedicates a lot of attention to the sacking of Rome by the Visigoths in 410 AD, which ended also with a lightning strike. The analysis of this and of other descriptions shows Orosius’ vision of history and the temporal order based on the power of Rome and faith in the true God.
EN
In my paper I point out both the advantages and disadvantages of thinking about historiography as "a historical representation". According to Ankersmit, historians always tend to represent the past in their texts. However, there are some historical works and even movements which would rather prefer to formulate and resolve a problem than create representations of the reality. I also analyse the consequences of Ankersmit’s propositions on historiography. In my opinion, "the logic of representation" involves this discipline in a crisis which is – as M.P. Markowski claims – permanent for the history of representation. Moreover, in such a situation historiography has to reach an impossible ideal: to make the past real in the present. On the other hand, a comparison made by Ankesmit between a painter and a historian, suggesting that the latter represents the reality in a similar way that the former renders his model, allows us to rethink the function of fact in the historical narration. In both cases a realistic element becomes a sign of "deeper" layers of represented reality. In consequence, it is possible to distinguish the "poetic truth" within the best historical works.
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Content available Susanne K. Langer and the Definition of Art
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EN
This essay aims to analyze the conception of a work of art in the thought of Susanne K. Langer. The author offers us a definition of art, grounded on the idea that art is the “creation of symbolic forms of human feeling”. This thesis is, in turn, constructed from a robust theory of the symbolic function of the human mind.
EN
The article „Sign and interpretation” is an attempt to answer the question of the possibility of the existence of hermeneutic semiotics. The discussion relates essentially to problems such as sign and interpretation. The author analyzes the selected threads of thought of Charles Sanders Peirce, showing their similarity to the hermeneutics of Heidegger and Gadamer.
EN
Kaźmierczak Marek, O atrofii kultury literackiej. Uwagi na przykładzie semiotycznych i rzeczowych funkcji książek w filmie Sara [Atrophy of Literature. Remarks about the Semiotic Functions of Books in the Film Sara]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 32. Poznań 2019, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 383–400. ISSN 1644-6763. DOI 10.14746/pt.2019.32.21. The article concerns the relations between the main character of the film Sara (directed by M. Ślesicki in 1997) and books (especially Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment) in the context of social and political changes in Poland in the 1990s. The presence of books in popular Polish films from that period is not described in research, hence this article provides a short introduction to this subject. The main hypothesis of the paper is that the presence of books on the margins of narration in popular films reflects social changes in thinking about literature.
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Content available remote Stereotyp w przestrzeni symbolicznej
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EN
The subject of the article is stereotypes considered in the context of symbolic space. This redefinition and reconsideration of the complex issue of stereotypes and stereotyping of diferent kinds in art and everyday life aims at demonstrating the operational usefulness of this concept in contemporary humanistic re-ection, including the sphere of art, everyday life and various fields of scientific research.
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Content available Semiotyczne aspekty virtual reality
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EN
The dynamic development of virtual reality technics opened new possibilities of creating visual, audial and audiovisual moving pictures. VR is coming and invaiding XXIst century cinema. There is a grand challenge for filmmakers imagination: show delivering vision of reality or so-called reality made without using real physical objects. Are we really prepared for this technological revolution? Hendrykowski’s paper poses certain crucial questions connected with that change in making movies. Among them: ambigous nature of digital sign, possible regions of spectator’s new experiences, symbolic function of digital images and deep transformation of category od aesthetics in expanding world of multimedia.
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