In this study authoress investigates Slovak literary life with an emphasis on literary journalism in the second half of the 20th century, and especially in the period 1945 – 1948, when the basic direction of Slovak and Czech society in the revived post-war Czechoslovakia was decided, and not only on the cultural, but chiefly on the socio-political level. On the cultural-political level, the heirs of the Czech and Slovak avant-gardes clashed with the forces of the traditional liberal and conservative right in the fields of social and artistic activity. The introductory part of the study is a sort of sounding into the past of inter-war Modernism, which was carried on a wave of revolutionary feeling, stimulated by an idealized idea of the liberating power of the Russian revolution. The author sees this period not only as an artistic phenomenon, but also in terms of the inter-connection of culture and politics. Culture, the home territory and autonomous field of the intellectual and the artist, could easily be manipulated when drawn into the political sphere. It could easily be ideologized under the pretext that it had to serve a higher aim, such as revival of the nation or the chosen class, especially after 1948, when it became the dominant state forming group. Culture, both Czech and Slovak, had been long accustomed to a politicized function. The new individual and collective positions after 1945 further radicalized and petrified them.