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EN
The article constitutes an attempt to introduce Józef Jałowiecki (pseudonym J. z Bożeńców J.) a missionary, historian and correspondent from the Congregation of the Mission of St. Vincent de Paul. Chronologically, the article embraces the years 1755–1885 – the period from bringing Lazarists to Krasław by Konstanty Ludwik Plater to the death of the last parish priest. The source base is the material kept in the Latvian National Library, including in particular the “Libraries of the Catholic Church in Krasław” (Krāslavaskato lubaznīcas bibliotēkas) and the Latvian calendar of 1870. Other valuable sources include the files of The House of Missionary Priests in Krasław from the years 1755–1842, personnel catalogues of missionaries and “The Biographic Dictionary of the Community of Missionary Priests (1651–1951)” [„Słownik biograficzny Zgromadzenia Księży Misjonarzy (1651–1951)”] written by Alfons Schletz and kept in the Archive of the Polish Province of the Community of Missionary Priests and the Archive of Nasza Przeszłość in Cracow. Another equally useful source was the correspondence between Jan Józef Jałowiecki and Przegląd Katolicki. Jan Józef Jałowiecki (1817–1885) played a major role in the history of Polish Livonia and Courland as a parish priest and the last rector of the seminary in Krasław. The thesis is proved by the letters published in Przegląd Katolicki and an article published in the magazine Rubon. He described there the history of parish churches from Livonia and Courland. He depicted people who created the history of Kalupe [Kołup], Lejksna [Liksna], Daugavpils [Dinaburg], Rēzekne [Rzeżyca], Bebra, Dweta, Nowa Świętmujża, Stara Świętmujża, Nidzgal and Krasław. As a correspondent from Polish Livonia, he tried to maintain the continuity between partitioned Polish lands. He also dealt with poetry, the evidence of which is a prayer to St. Isidore the Labourer included in the article. Nevertheless, it is hard to localize the remaining works he wrote as he remained anonymous. His involvement in the issues of the Church of St. Louise in Krasław also bore fruit. Thanks to him Jan Matejko’s apprentices painted the picture St. Louis setting off on a crusade, which was brought to Krasław after Jałowiecki’s death. He deserves a closer academic investigation, owing to his educational and literary activity, as well as his work for the parish church. His involvement in major issues allows us to refer to him as a correspondent from Polish Livonia in the full sense of the word.
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Content available remote Proselyting in First-contact Situations as an Instructed Action
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Drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, this study examines the phenomenon of proselyting in first-contact public situations as conducted, learned, continually developed, and reflected by American Mormon missionaries from the Church of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in the Czech Republic, with a focus on first-contact public proselyting (FCPP) encounters. Proselyting is analysed as an instructed action and as a situation in which one party is initially aware of the category of encounter which is to take place, while the other party (or parties) is not, and it is necessary to create the particular type of encounter and then to execute it in some effective and beneficial way as defined by the first party. I examine the types of order to which both parties orient in these situations, i.e. local and extended sequential order, topical order, and categorial order, as they are layered in the doing of the instructed action. The findings demonstrate that, as opposed to the lay perception that religious missionaries simply recite learned passages and phrases in doing their proselyting work, their activities in fact involve complex sequences of communicative work which require the utilisation of experience, tacit knowledge, and creativity. In addition, while it is possible to flesh out and describe a clear sequence of phases in FCPP encounters which, from the outsider’s perspective, constitute proselyting, there is little which otherwise differentiates it from other types of activities involving talk.
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Content available OPUS AID “AD GENTES” IN SERVICE OF THE MISSIONS
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Studia Ełckie
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2016
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tom 18
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nr 2
197 - 210
EN
The Opus Aid „Ad Gentes” is an organisation which made its impact on the Polish missionary society. Numerous initiatives for the missions made it recognisable and trustworthy for the faithful who supports the missions by its means. The Opus, being a branch of the Commission of the Polish Episcopate for Missions, collaborates willingly with another organisations, associations, foundations and church movements which bring material and spiritual help for missions. The Opus is an important partner for the missionaries in their evange-lization, charitable, educational and medical service.
PL
The Possibility of Utilizing Missionaries’ Correspondence to Study the History of Peasant Migration (from the territories of former Polish Commonwealth) at the turn of the twentieth century The article presents new possibilities of research on the history of migration at the turn the 20th century using narrative sources, particularly the correspondence of missionaries. Peasants produced and left behind very few narrative sources, which results in migration historians rarely using them. The author indicates how to use alternative narrative sources produced by people of the Church to study the history of migration, in particular emigration from the territories of the former Polish Commonwealth.
EN
Looking at an interesting and very diverse scientific out-put of Michael Boym, Polish jesuit missionary in China, one can ask why so many of his works still remain unpublished. This text analyses some circumstances and conditions that impacted this situation for example relation between Boym and two other Jesuits – Martino Martini and Athanasius Kircher, complicated political situation of the Middle Kingdom in the second half of 17th century or some religious factors of the inner policy of the Society of Jesus. Lecture of the original authorial introductions to the published books of Michael Boym (i.e. Flora Sinensis  and Clavis medica ) suggests the author found inspiration for his work in Jesuit motto „Omnia ad maiorem Dei gloriam”. By setting both religious and scientific targets to his works Boym persuaded the order authorities that his books should have been published.
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The Moravian Brethren formed a very particular community within the Protestant Church. Above all, they had a distinct understanding of the Christian ministry and, consequently, their group had a disctinct missionary character. They were the first to undertake Protestant missions among peoples living far from the centers of civilization and administrative power. This paper describes the author’s encounter with the Himala- yan cultures and traces of Moravian missionaries’ work in the area, discerned over many years of research focusing on the past European activity, its contexts and the durability of cultural solutions it promoted.
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The article presents two likely and so far unknown compilers of the third edition of Koniáš’s Key from 1770. Their names have been revealed by a handwritten note in a copy that was originally a part of the library of the private collector Josef Bartsch (1731–1803). Concerning the first figure, the Jesuit Josef Kögler, the treatise describes his career in the Jesuit Order and the posts that he held. In the case of his co-worker Jan Kohout, the text outlines the possible connections that might help identify him precisely.
EN
Cardinal Robert Sarah is one of the most recognizable Catholic hierarchs today. In his publications and speeches, he boldly paints the image of the contemporary Church, not afraid to talk about its crisis. Among his reflections we can also find missionary topics. The latter is interesting and valuable in that it comes from a pupil of the French mission in Guinea, who became one of those responsible for the missionary work of the entire universal Church. The African Cardinal tells his readers about his childhood spent in communion with missionaries. He points to the beneficial influence of missionaries on the history of his country and people. He emphasizes the necessity of a supernatural understanding of the nature of the mission ad gentes, its dynamism and fruitfulness, which stem from prayer. Outlines the spiritual profile of the missionary. He shows with hope an opportunity for the renewal of the Church and salvation for the whole civilization in the missionary nature of the Church, which implies an exchange of gifts between local Churches. He points to specific areas that can be a leaven of renewal of the Church and Western culture. He is also not afraid to boldly and critically touch the issues of inculturation. Cardinal Sarah proves that even when experiencing a local crisis, in its universal dimension the Church is still in a state of mission.
PL
Jednym z bardziej rozpoznawalnych hierarchów katolickich jest obecnie kardynał Robert Sarah. W swych publikacjach i wystąpieniach odważnie kreśli obraz współczesnego Kościoła, nie bojąc się mówić takżeo jego kryzysie. Wśród jego refleksji znajdziemy również tematykę misyjną. Ta ostania jest o tyle interesująca i wartościowa, że pochodzi od wychowanka francuskiej misji w Gwinei, który stał się jednym z odpowiedzialnych za dzieło misyjne całego Kościoła powszechnego. Wskazuje na dobroczynne oddziaływanie misjonarzy dla historii jego kraju i ludu. Podkreśla konieczność nadprzyrodzonego rozumienia natury misji ad gentes, jej dynamizm i owocność wyrosłe na gruncie modlitwy. Kreśli duchową sylwetkę misjonarza. Z nadzieją ukazuje szansę na odnowę Kościoła i ratunek dla całej cywilizacji w misyjnej naturze Kościoła. Wskazuje na konkretne obszary, które mogą być zaczynem odnowy Kościoła i kultury zachodniej. Uważna lektura dzieł kard. Saraha pozwala odkryć ciągłą wymianę darów między Kościołami, wskazuje jednak na zmianę kierunków tej wymiany. Analiza myśli kardynała z Afryki potwierdza naukę o misyjnej naturze Kościoła a jednocześnie wewnętrzne zmiany, jakie w niej się dokonują.
EN
In this article we describe the peculiarities of learning foreign languages (Tibetan, Mongolian, Uyghur, Vietnamese, Japanese, Korean, Burmese, English languages) in primary schools of China. These languages were the first foreign languages learning in China. The first foreign language that appeared in China was English. Only children from the rich families could learn this language. At first, there were no schools in China, that’s why children learnt foreign languages at home. In 1289 the first school of learning foreign languages was opened in China. The first teachers of foreign languages were Persian; moreover, only foreigners were the teachers in this school. The best students became the teachers of foreign languages later. Only boys had an opportunity to learn not only foreign languages, but enter the school. Chinese liked to learn different foreign languages. Most popular languages were Japanese, Vietnamese, Russian and English. At the end of the year students passed the exams. Nowadays, Chinese schools offer to learn foreign language from the first grade. Some kindergartens give lessons of learning foreign languages. English is the compulsory subject and is included into curriculum. At the end of each grade children pass the exam. The system of passing exams is the best system of verification of students’ knowledge in China. As we know, learning foreign languages in China has a long history. People want to know several foreign languages and they went to their aim. We found out that the first schools of learning foreign languages were founded by American and French missionaries. By the word, missionaries’ school revealed the specifics of training the foreign language teachers and translators; educational and methodological support of teaching foreign language (Glossary). English is the international language and every person in the world wants to know it. Chinese are not an exception. They began to learn English because their economy develops very quickly and they want to understand and communicate with foreigners.
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Content available Kościół i odkrycie Ameryki
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EN
The scope of historical transformation starting from 1492 could have been caused by the fact that Columbus’s voyages triggered off the process of re-defining rules and connections in the New World inhabited by various peoples. Important questions were raised: how to reconcile the variety of cultures and historical trajectories with a Christian impulse, and mainly with a universality of human values which could harmonize social relations with the variety of peoples and cultures, permeated by the power of otherness and inequality. Those issues brought about political and moral dilemmas for America’s conquerors. One can state that year 1492 symbolized an early dawn of our own era and many towns which were founded in America by Christopher Columbus and his successors became a symbol of struggle for justice, equality and peace for many nations, with memorable victories and failures, the majority of which have been too easily forgotten or ignored. But the most important sign of this significant year 1492 was kindling of the holy fire of the future, which gave hope to release a vital force of America’s peoples, regardless of their skin color and country of origin.
EN
The article deals with German colonial language policy and linguistic research carried out in the territory of Namibia during its time as a German colony. Since the language issue was one of the most challenging topics for both Germans and the indigenous population, a significant effort was made to establish substantial language training facilities. German colonists had the opportunity to attend the Seminar for Oriental Languages in Berlin and they received financial support from the government for their commitment to study. The local population learned the German language and culture, attending special courses under the auspices of missionaries. One of the most famous missionaries was Heinrich Vedder, who made a huge contribution to research on the Nama people, exploring their language and culture. Many contrastive linguistics textbooks were published, showing differences between the respective grammar and lexical systems. Another important attempt to support multilingualism was made by professional journals containing comprehensive information about new findings made in South West Africa.
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Content available Colegios de Propaganda Fide w Nowym Świecie
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PL
Zainicjowanie funkcjonowania Kolegiów Propaganda Fide (Colegios de Propaganda Fide) w Nowym Świecie należałoby rozpatrywać jako ważki impuls ku odnowie zaangażowania misyjnego w XVII wieku. Ameryka Łacińska była już wówczas w znacznym stopniu schrystianizowana, aczkolwiek wiele obszarów stanowiło jeszcze ciągle aktualne, misyjne wyzwanie dla tamtejszego Kościoła. Inicjatorami przebudzenia misyjnego byli franciszkanie, którzy podjęli się zadania stworzenia stosownych ośrodków formacyjno-edukacyjnych z myślą o kształceniu misjonarzy wg aktualnych potrzeb na poszczególnych obszarach. W sumie powstało 17 kolegiów misyjnych, które podlegały bezpośrednio rzymskiej Kongregacji Propaganda Fide. Dzięki tym wysiłkom dzieło misyjne w XVII i XVIII wieku objęło wiele dotychczas pomijanych obszarów w Ameryce Środkowej i Południowej.
EN
The initiation of the functioning of the Colleges of Propaganda Fide (Colegios de Propaganda Fide) in the New World should be seen as a weighty impulse for the renewal of missionary commitment in the seventeenth century. Latin America was already to a large extent Christianized although many areas were still a valid missionary challenge for the Church there. The initiators of this missionary awakening were the Franciscans, who undertook the task of creating appropriate formation and educational centres, with a view to educate missionaries according to current needs in individual areas. In total, 17 missionary colleges were established, which were directly subordinate to the Roman Congregation for Propaganda Fide. Thanks to these efforts missionary work in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries covered many previously neglected areas in Central and South America.
EN
Since the apostolic times, the Church has continuously fulfi lled the invitation addressed by Jesus to his disciples: Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature (Mark 16:15). The Second Vatican Council, writing about the missionary nature of the Church, clearly emphasized the importance of the task of bringing the Good News to all people on Earth. This mission includes the activity of the Sisters Servants of the Holy and Immaculate Virgin Mary, a congregation founded by blessed Edmund Bojanowski. Although the congregation was not established with missionary work in mind, the fi rst Sisters left Poland as early as 1928, realizing the deep missionary  awareness that had always been present in Bojanowski. Currently, the Sisters work almost on all continents, running schools and nurseries for children, serving the sick in  clinics and hospitals, working for charity, parishes and pastoral care. The spring months faced the Sisters with the challenge of dealing with the covid-19 virus epidemic, which aff ected, among others, the functioning of the hospitals and schools run by the Sisters, putting many children in poor health at risk because of the conditions in which they live. The Sisters often added a request for prayer and support to the current news published on the Internet. Although due to the epidemic, the departures of volunteers became impossible, many people of good will supported and  continue to support the missionary activity of the Sisters, remembering the words ofChrist: Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me (Matthew 25:40).
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Content available Rola zakonników w dziele misyjnym Kościoła
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PL
Misyjne zaangażowanie zakonników reprezentujących rozmaite zakony oraz zgromadzenia misyjne stanowi w dużej mierze o dynamizmie misyjnym Kościoła. Od dawien dawna bowiem, zakony są postrzegane jako awangarda w dziele misyjnym. W tym kontekście jawią się zasadne pytania: jaka jest ich rola i czym się konkretnie zajmują? Nie mniej frapującym zagadnieniem jest to, czy konsekracja zakonna, czyli życie ślubami, przekłada się czy też ułatwia albo utrudnia misyjne zaangażowanie? Czy monastyczny tryb życia ma rację bytu na obszarach misyjnych? Poniższy tekst stara się odpowiedzieć na powyższe kwestie. Zarazem pragnie zachęcić czytelnika do dalszej pogłębionej refleksji nad rolą zakonników we współczesnym dziele misyjnym Kościoła. Nie ulega bowiem wątpliwości, że nowe paradygmaty misyjne, wskazane przez ostatnich papieży, stanowią wielkie wyzwanie również dla zakonników, zaangażowanych w dzieło misyjne.
EN
The missionary commitment of religious men and women representing different religious orders and mission societies are seen as the source of the missionary dynamism of the Church. In fact, the religious orders have been seen as the vanguard (avant-garde) of the missionary work. These realities cause arising of some well-founded questions like; What is the role of the missionary orders and mission societies in evangelization and what exactly these religious bodies do? No less puzzling issue is whether consecrated life, or life in the religious vows, helps or hinders missionary activities? Does the monastic life make any sense in the missionary territories? The following text looks for answers for the above questions. At the same time, the author wishes to encourage the readers to go into reflection on the role of the religious and monks in the Church’s contemporary mission work as there are no doubt that the new missionary paradigms, indicated by the recent popes, are a great challenge for the religious and monks who are involved in the missionary work.
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The article provides examples of our compatriots staying among the Indian tribes in Bolivia since the end of the 19th century (which was the period of emigration and research expeditions of Polish scientists: Józef Jackowski, Rudolf Zuber, Władysław Kluger, Roman Kozłowski, Jan Kalinowski, Józef Warszewicz). The missionary work of Poles in Bolivia began in the second half of the 20th century. The first ones who arrived were the Salesians and Redemptorists. The Franciscans came in the 1970. Missionary activity has been also performed by the missionary sisters from various religious orders and assemblies (including the Dębickie Servant Sisters, the Albertine Sisters, the Sacred Heart Sisters). The article presents the silhouettes of prominent Polish women and men serving in Bolivia: Friar Piotr Nawrot (Divine Word Missionary and musicologist), Bishop Krzysztof Białasik (Divine Word Missionary, the “Polish shepherd of Bolivian mountaineers”), Friar Kazimierz Strzępek – called “El Misionero,” Friar Kacper Nowakowski (Franciscan, OFM Conv.), Grzegorz Stachowiak (CR), Sister Miriam (of the Sacred Heart Sisters). In addition, the author recalls these Poles who passed away, but are still present in the hearts of Bolivians: Fr Bernard Czaja (Divine Word Missionary), Fr. Tomasz Strudzik, and Fr. Mariusz Graszek. Henryk Nowak and Mileniusz Spanowicz (a photographer of Bolivian nature) who are currently living in Bolivia, are also presented in the article.
PL
Artykuł zawiera przykłady pobytu naszych rodaków wśród plemion indiańskich w Boliwii od końca XIX wieku (okres emigracji i wypraw badawczych polskich naukowców: Józefa Jackowskiego, Rudolfa Zubera, Władysława Klugera, Romana Kozłowskiego, Jana Kalinowskiego, Józefa Warszewicza). Prace misyjne w tym kraju Polacy rozpoczęli w drugiej połowie XX wieku. Jako pierwsi przybyli salezjanie i redemptoryści, a w latach siedemdziesiątych XX wieku – franciszkanie. Posługę misyjną pełnią również misjonarki z różnych zakonów i zgromadzeń (m.in. służebniczki dębickie, albertynki, sercanki). Artykuł prezentuje sylwetki wybitnych Polaków i Polek posługujących w Boliwii: o. Piotra Nawrota (werbista i muzykolog), bpa Krzysztofa Białasika (werbista, „polski pasterz boliwijskich górali”), o. Kazimierza Strzępka – „El Misionero”, o. Kacpra Nowakowskiego (franciszkanin OFM), o. Grzegorza Stachowiaka (zmartwychwstańcy), s. Miriam (sercanki). Ponadto autorka wspomina tych Polaków, którzy już odeszli, a na zawsze pozostali w sercach Boliwijczyków: o. Bernarda Czaję (werbista), ks. Tomasza Strudzika, ks. Mariusza Graszka. Prezentuje także obecnie mieszkających w Boliwii – Henryka Nowaka i Mileniusza Spanowicza, fotografa boliwijskiej przyrody.
PL
Artykuł porusza temat procesu kolonizacji i chrystianizacji, prowadzonej przez europejskich misjonarzy od czasu tzw. „wielkich odkryć geograficznych”. Celem nie jest jednak opisanie historii kolonizacji, lecz spojrzenie na dzisiejsze oblicze artystyczno-sakralnych działań, obecnych w postkolonialnym świecie. Opisane zostały przykłady współczesnych widowisk i performansów sakralnych w Iztapalapie (Meksyk), na Filipinach (prowincje: Aklan, Pampanga, Rizal) oraz jawajski teatr cieni wayang wahyu. Ich charakter należy odczytywać jako hybrydyczny, a zatem taki, który nigdy nie powstałby bez prekolonialnych korzeni, kolonizacyjno-chrystianizacyjnej działalności misjonarzy oraz postkolonialnego Nowego Porządku.
EN
The article discusses the issue of colonization and Christianization processes conducted by European missionaries from the time of so-called “Age of Discovery”. However, the aim of the article is not creating a description of colonization history, but taking a look at today’s vision of artistic and religious activities present in postcolonial world. In the article there were described examples of religious shows and performances in Iztapalapa (Mexico) and Philippines (provinces: Aklan, Pampanga, Rizal) as well as Java shadow play called wayang wahyu. Character of these forms of art should be defined as hybrid – they would not exist without pre-colonial origins, colonization- and Christianization-related activities of missionaries and postcolonial New World Order.
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The Council of Trent confirmed the Church’s teaching on the law of penance, focusing on confession of sins and sacramental absolution. It was a response to the erroneous teaching of Protestantism, which rejected most of the sacraments by recognising only the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist. The sacrament of penance was established by Christ on the day of the resurrection. The apostles, followed by priests, received the power to forgive sins. The doctrine of the Holy Sacraments, and especially of penance and the Eucharist, was preached by the members of the Congregation of the Mission founded by Vincent de Paul during missions in many European countries. The main task of the missionaries was to encourage the faithful to confess their sins and receive the sacrament of penance. This sacrament was perceived as a spiritual cure for the sinners and through repentance they could return to the merciful God. The missionaries came to Siemiatycze in 1717. They took over the parish and the church, which they expanded and re-equipped, inter alia by adding six oak regency confessionals (ca. 1744). The finials of the confessionals featured paintings of penitents absolved by God: Mary Magdalene, King David, the prodigal son and St. Peter. The purpose of the scenes in the paintings was to make it clear to the faithful that the sacrament of penance is a sign that God never leaves people, but always opens the way for their return. Through the paintings in the finials, the sinners were to be assured that repentance and confession of sins to the priest and the penance given by him lead to the forgiveness of sins by God by virtue of the “power of the keys” – the priestly absolution. The images in the confessionals also indicated that for the sinner, the confession is the way back to and the source of God’s mercy. This was emphasised by two consecutive images in the confessionals: the Good Shepherd finding the stray sheep and the scene showing St. Peter and Christ at the moment of handing over the keys. For the faithful, the figure of St. Peter indicated that he would strengthen and guard the faith against all human weakness.
PL
Sobór Trydencki potwierdził naukę Kościoła o prawie pokutnym, skupiając się na wyznaniu grzechów i sakramentalnym rozgrzeszeniu. Była to odpowiedź na błędną naukę protestantyzmu, który odrzucał większość sakramentów, uznając tylko sakramenty chrztu i Eucharystii. Sakrament pokuty ustanowił Chrystus w dniu zmartwychwstania. Apostołowie otrzymali władzę odpuszczenia grzechów, a po nich kapłani. Naukę o Sakramentach Świętych, a szczególnie o pokucie i Eucharystii głosili członkowie Zgromadzeni Misji Wincentego a Paulo na misjach w wielu krajach Europy. Głównym zadaniem misjonarzy podczas głoszenia prowadzonych przez nich misji było zachęcanie wiernych do odbycia spowiedzi i przyjęcia sakramentu pokuty. Sakrament ten miał być duchowym lekarstwem dla grzesznika, a jego nawrócenie – drogą powrotu do miłosiernego Boga. Do Siemiatycz misjonarze przybyli w roku 1717. Objęli parafię i kościół, który rozbudowali i na nowo wyposażyli, m.in. wstawiając sześć dębowych, regencyjnych konfesjonałów (ok. 1744). W zwieńczeniach konfesjonałów zostały umieszczone malarskie przedstawienia pokutników, którym Bóg przebaczył winy: Marii Magdalenie, królowi Dawidowi, synowi marnotrawnemu i św. Piotrowi. Zadaniem scen przedstawionych na obrazach było unaocznienie wiernym, iż sakrament pokuty jest znakiem, że Bóg nigdy nie opuszcza człowieka, lecz zawsze otwiera przed nim drogę powrotu. Umieszczone w zwieńczeniach konfesjonałów malarskie przedstawienia pokutników miały przekonać grzeszników, że żal i wyznanie grzechów kapłanowi, nałożona przez niego pokuta i udzielona, na mocy „władzy kluczy”, absolucja prowadzą do odpuszczenia grzechów przez Boga. Obrazy w konfesjonałach wskazywały również, że spowiedź jest dla grzesznika drogą powrotu i źródłem miłosierdzia Bożego. Podkreślały to dwa kolejne przedstawienia w konfesjonałach: Dobry Pasterz odnajdujący zbłąkane owce oraz scena ukazująca św. Piotra i Chrystusa w momencie przekazania kluczy. Postać św. Piotra dla wiernych miała być znakiem, że będzie on umacniał i strzegł wiary przed wszelką ludzką słabością.
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