Nowa wersja platformy, zawierająca wyłącznie zasoby pełnotekstowe, jest już dostępna.
Przejdź na https://bibliotekanauki.pl
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 35

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  sport
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
|
|
nr 1
125-136
EN
The sociological outlook on Olympism and sport contained in this paper covered the ideas and notions of sport to a lesser extent than the actual state of affairs, that is, the condition of sport here and now. The sociological description of sport assumed that sport was an element of the modern society and contemporary culture. This perspective allowed the description and analysis of sport in terms which are employed by sociology, or more generally, by social sciences. This means that it was possible to reflect upon sport through paradigms, theories and trends of thought which are effectively used in attempts at sociological descriptions of modern societies.The critical analysis of Olympism and contemporary sport, presented above, does not assert that Olympism and sport have run out of possibilities for further development. On the contrary, both Olympism and contemporary sport are the hope and the chance that a better future awaits communities, cultures, civilizations and humanity on a global scale. Furthermore, the threats and negative trends which emerge in sport should not remain concealed or underestimated, because they are of an objective character and have an effect on the whole of the humanistic power of sport. One should also realise that all the aforementioned negative phenomena and processes do not result from some kind of degeneration of sport as such, but are caused by general, external tendencies which penetrate sport through economic, financial, axiological, ethical and many other channels.The more or less clear outline of the future of sport contained in this paper is of an alternative and exclusively probabilistic character. The future development of sport can take three different directions. Firstly, the future may bring out and strengthen all the tendencies which are already present in contemporary sport, such as dehumanisation, commercialisation, visualisation and medialisation. Secondly, there may emerge a global trend to force sport into the idealised frame of the past and make it become what it was after its foundations had been laid during the Hellenistic period, or rather, the way people remember it being. However, such inclinations towards general reconstruction usually emerge after radical developments which, for example, challenge sport as a cultural reality. Thirdly, the postmodernist ideals may be revived in one form or another, and while they will not necessarily alter the structure of sport, they will put the emphasis which results from certain trends and processes on some unspecified areas of sport consumption and the pursuit of maximal sensations and excitement in sport.No ideals are immune to distortion when subjected to the process of materialisation. Ideals are not realised by perfect and metaphysical beings, but by humans made of flesh and bones and having both good and bad inclinations. Every person is socialised and moulded in a specific cultural and social reality which is never free from deviation and pathology. Similarly, there can be no sport, and that includes the Olympic movement, which could possibly remain an enclave of good and nobleness, a paradise on Earth, with a wall separating it from all the phenomena and processes that take place in contemporary societies. In a way, sport and the Olympic movement are bound to be penetrated by diverse phenomena and trends which have an impact on the spirit and image of sport.There are no ideal societies nor is there ideal sport, free from deviation and pathology. It is thus totally impossible to accomplish the utopia of the Olympic movement and sport as a land of happy people, uninfluenced by phenomena and processes which are characteristic of modern societies. There can be no world without individuals who breach cultural models, norms and values, no world without deviants and swindlers. Nevertheless, this unattainable utopia has to be pursued, because in the pursuit, people can achieve a lot to improve the axionormative order in sport as well as social life in all its aspects.
|
2010
|
tom 49
|
nr 1
53-64
EN
The theory of ‘development’, when applied to sports, remains an ambiguous and unclear reference. ‘Development’, like ‘modernization’, can be interpreted as Western sports exported to the Third World, as a neo-colonial ‘brawn drain’ of African athletes to the West, as evolutionism and ‘individualization’, none of which considers cultural diversity. This article analyses functionalist developmental theory, currently mainstream in countries like Germany. Developmental theory has a tendency to overlook diversity in sports and, more specifically, dynamics in popular sports and movement culture within different social contexts. There is nothing like ‘the one sport’, nor does ‘the soccer game’ exist alone in the rich world of football. Diversity in sports inspires differentiated views of democracy. How are different forms of democracy, especially in today's ‘competitive state’, implicated in sports? There is no reason to cultivate an attitude of better-knowing when facing the development of ‘the others’. This limitation launches a humble start for sports development as a means of mutual exchange and enrichment.
|
2010
|
tom 49
|
nr 1
21-29
EN
Sport is - and should be - an amoral phenomenon (what should not be confused with an immoral one); that is, a phenomenon which is completely independent from ethics, except of, possibly, deontological ethics which concerns professionals who have professional obligations towards their employers and other persons who are provided with and influenced by their services.Conduct according to rules of a given sport has no moral character. It has only pragmatic character, similarly as conduct in compliance with principles of the administrative code, the civil code or the penal code. Of course, when you act in accordance with rules of sports rivalry you can additionally realize also other aims - like, for example, aesthetic, spectacular or moral ones. However, in each case rules of the game and legal norms have priority, because they are the most important regulative determinant of conduct in various societies, including variously defined human teams. The above mentioned legal and sports regulations are not moral norms. They can, however, influence moral behaviours if they are in conflict with the law or rules of the game.From that viewpoint moral norms are exterritorial in their relation to assumptions and rules of a particular sport. Contestants and people responsible for them - like, for example, coaches or sports officials - as well as their employers are neither required to account for their moral beliefs, nor for their moral behaviours, if only they act in compliance with rules of sports rivalry.
|
2010
|
tom 48
|
nr 1
35-43
EN
Considering the expansion process which the sport sociology is facing in the Social Sciences and Physical Education fields, this study highlights the need to attribute to a specific area of knowledge a diagnosis treatment and the discussion of the sociological matters and conceptions emerging in sport. Also we included in this scenario the preliminary need detected in studies focused on the diagnosis of sport sociology in Brazil. The main goal of this research consists in the diagnosis of the papers that make reference to the sport sociology and to verify the consolidation, in the undergraduate and postgraduate area of this research field in Brazil. Specifically, we aim to localize the authors, their production, theoretical references and analysis models to codify a theoretical and methodological classification of the area, identifying conceptions, perspectives and study objects. We also attempt to make possible the structuring of an Excellence Centre in Sport Sociology studies in Brazil and the possible institutional exchange with Portuguese and Spanishspeaking countries, in Latin America. Part of this project is being accomplished by the creation of the Asociación Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioculturales Del Deporte - ALESDE. The methodology selected is a historic-descriptive research with an analytical-bibliographical character. The scope to this diagnosis will depend on the initial contacts with the productions, however we estimate a possible starting point in the 1950s. Through a preliminary study, we realized the mapping of two journals, one from Sociology and another from Physical Education, collecting data of the papers, such as: authors, theoretical approach, study objects and productions profile, from 1997 to 2007. As the results to this specific research we pointed out the absence of papers published in the Social Sciences journal. This may be the result of disputes and tensions of the academic field, considering issues as research legitimacy, prestige, and the superficiality of the papers submitted for publication, that does not attend the criteria of the referred journal. In the Physical Education journal the sport is a study object with insert, fact confirmed by the number of papers published. However, we noticed a large number of issues of this journal without any publication from Sport Sociology, which can be a symptom of a field in a consolidation process. Based on these indicatives we noticed that the papers we analyzed indicate a lack of a proper appropriation of the sociological theories to discuss, with the proper depth, the study object. These data allow us to elaborate a conception of the Sport Sociology as a field seeking its consolidation and autonomy in Sociology and in Physical Education. By this preliminary study and the wider research we present in this paper, we expect to fill a visible gap in the Sport Sociology studies and contribute in the consolidation of this research field.
|
|
tom 46
|
nr 1
39-49
EN
The text discusses some attempts to present the most essential characteristics of sport with the use of selected photos showing human situations in different sports disciplines. Two albums are reviewed: the first one offering a more psychological aspect of sports processes, and the other focused more on the dramatic tension in sports and the challenges sport poses for the man. Composing such selected collections of photos is a significant method for presenting an image of sport as an organic cultural entity.
|
|
nr 1
3-11
EN
Sport presents itself as a social configuration that enhances social inclusion by promoting tolerance, respect for others, cooperation, loyalty and friendship, and values associated with fair play, the most important ethical principles of sport. However, intolerance and exclusion can also be expressed in sport, certainly even more so the bigger the social inequalities and the ethnic, religious, gender, disability, and sexual orientation prejudices are in society. The processes of social exclusion, integration, and inclusion are research areas in the social sciences with consolidated knowledge, namely in the study of the problems of poverty, social inequalities, racial and ethnic discrimination, disability, and education. However, it is necessary to discuss the existing theoretical approaches and conceptions seen as explanatory principles of the reality of these fields of analysis, look at how they can frame the reality on the sports field, and then confirm them through empirical research in order to produce knowledge based on the reality of social facts. Despite the broad consensus on the potential of sport in promoting social inclusion, in this paper I stress that this potential can only become real if the orientation of sport includes strategies aimed at achieving these goals. I intend to show how the –social issue‖ in the field of sports has gained relevance in the institutional context, and thereby a new field of research for the social science of sport has been opened and needs to be deepened.
EN
Sport sponsorship has developed into a major global industry. Even though it is still a significant communication tool for companies, in recent years, sponsorship is no more just a matter of exposing a logo on a jersey or purchasing an in-stadium sign. Rather sponsors and sport entities should engage in an activity that enables them to exchange value. Sponsorships are moving toward complex patterns of interactions in which each “player” is engaged in a meaningful activity that can deliver mutual benefits. The aim of the paper is to analyze the sport sponsorship’s evolution in the latest economic recession. To understand the patterns of relations among different actors involved within a sport sponsorship arrangement, we take as “interpretive lenses” the strategic partnerships’ theoretical framework and make an application to a wide range of empirical sponsorship cases. Our main focus are national and international sponsorships related to professional teams and major sports events in which we are able to underline roles and strategic behaviors of sponsors and sport entities. The empirical analysis has been supported by a qualitative methodology. Data and information has been gathered using online secondary sources. Moreover, interviews with key executives and professionals involved within several sport sponsorships deals have been carried out. Findings suggest that sport sponsorships are assuming the role of a huge variety of agreements-exchange transactions, collaborations, strategic alliances, cooperation, consortia, etc.-that involve multiple complementary assets (technology, distribution channels, financial resources, etc.) and functions (R & D, marketing, organization, etc.). Furthermore, by implementing sports partnerships corporate and/or institutional actors are able to emerge among various stakeholders and to gain a global exposure.
|
|
tom 54
|
nr 1
49-54
EN
Football is played throughout the far regions of the world. There is no other sport that brings so many people together locally, nationally, and internationally. Football is not, however, a unified sport with shared rules, customs and histories across time and space. In contrast, football is largely a different sport depending on where it is being played. This paper traces the development of Canadian football as a unique sport with strong similarities to and subtle differences from American football, as well as clear distinctions from forms of football played outside of North America.
EN
In recent years sport has become a phenomenon of large dimensions and it is an important resource for the development of a local context (Hautbois, Desbordes, 2008; Maier, Weber, 1993; Weed, Bull, 2004). The combination of physical and sports practices within a natural environment (outdoor) broadens the range of activities that people can choose in their free time (nordic walking, hiking, rediscovering rural districts, walking and cycling in urban spaces, etc.). The demand of this kind of activities is continuously evolving. Sports tourism is a new opportunity for the development of tourism offer. Cities, regions, rural areas, etc. through the exploitation of local resources, vocations and specializations can promote a destination in terms of reputation and tourism flows. This research aims to stimulate a reflection on the role that the synergies between tourism and sport, combined with the use of resources, services and local products (cultural and artistic paths, local artefacts, wine tastings, etc.) may have for the development of a specific territory and its socio-economic environment.
|
|
tom 52
|
nr 1
49-60
EN
The paper entitled Social Aspects of Physical Education and Sport in Schools follows the tradition of social research on physical culture, focusing on the evolution of physical education and sport in schools. The subject is analysed using terms and theories that are characteristic of sociology, most notably the sociology of physical culture, historical sociology and the sociology of culture. Individual subsections look at physical education and sport from the angle of cultures and societies, analysing them in the context of their presence in different schooling systems. Questions of physical education and sport in schools are presented with regards to the following concepts: institutionalisation of education, pre-modern societies, developing modern societies, and developed modern societies. In the closing section, the paper discusses the situation of physical education and sport in schools during the final phase of modern societies, including in Poland.
|
2010
|
tom 49
|
nr 1
39-52
EN
In exploring sports ethics as a sociological phenomenon, I have tried to demonstrate how alterations in the nomos of the field of competitive practices (in the sense of Bourdieu), have unexpectedly unleashed a chain of events that have ultimately weakened the ethical principles of modern sport, imposing contradictions upon the way these are manifested in practice. Our theoretical approach to ethics was developed from the contribution of Durkheim, Weber and Elias.The universe of our study was the Portuguese reality during the Democratic state as a case study of the phenomenon. The information collected in our research has required different methods of analysis (qualitative and quantitative) and sources of data (official statistics, news from media, participate observation and interviews).Of the changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century in the Portuguese sports field, I have identified the inextricable interdependence of sporting, economic and symbolic dimensions as the main determining factor behind the victory-oriented approach to sporting action, which in turn has led to a radicalization of rival interests and an intensification of competition.As a result of this, there have been changes in the ethos of sporting interaction, weakening the principle of fair play and leading to an increase in practices that undermine it. This has meant that refereeing has become much more difficult, with increased distrust in the fairness of the competition, a situation which is aggravated by cases of corruption and doping. In this context, actors and organizations have become more involved in the ethical regulation of their sport in the Portuguese society. As a result, regulation has become more flexible and open to negotiation, both through institutional channels, and through strategies of pressure and persuasion in the (highly mediatized) public sphere. Thus, contingent solidarities have been strengthened to the detriment of organic solidarities.The growing distrust, together with the dynamics of surveillance and supervision launched in the 1990s, have also contributed to the activation of mechanical solidarities within groups with shared interests, in a context of opposition-confrontation or radicalization. This has been propitious to manifestations of collective violent revolt, and to the institution of forms of premeditated violence between some groups of ultra fans. Consequently, the undermining of ethical regularization has become even more visible, particularly in the field of top-level professional football.In response to the specific nature of the ethical conflicts in the sports figuration, states have intervened at national and European level by enshrining ethical principles in the form of legal provisions, defining systems of sanctions and penalties. This has resulted in a weakening of the autonomy enjoyed by sporting organizations, a principle that ultimately derived from the freedom of sporting associative movement in civil society.
EN
The first mention of standards for physical education in Slovakia refers to the Ratio education reform. This took effect on the territory of Hungary since 1777. Caring for physical education was one of the aims of the school. The requirement of compulsory school physical education is raised the first time by the poet Jan Kollar. Another Hungarian reform in the mid-19th century included physical education among the optional subjects, and this subject is taught in some cities. Physical education became a compulsory subject in 1868. Physical education was taught according to the Spiess system and the hours were for more classes or somewhere just for boys. Physical education teachers have been trained since 1871 in Budapest. A significant promoter of physical education was Ivan Branislav Zoch, author of the first Slovak textbook on physical education (1873). The level of physical education increased after the formation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Physical education was a compulsory subject in schools other than universities (since 1938). Since 1939, in Slovakia the future teachers of physical education were trained in the Physical Education Institute of the Slovak University. The Physical Education Institute underwent a number of organizational changes. In 1960 it was converted into the Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Comenius University in Bratislava, and its direct successor is the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Comenius University in Bratislava. Beyond this, the physical education teachers are also trained in other institutions in Slovakia.
|
|
nr 1
59-64
EN
The study was conducted in northern France at the sport management department at the University of Lille. It attempts to highlight the type of summer vacation of its students. Previous studies have shown the modalities of mobility (Urry, 2000; Seewer, 2004). Although models exist to explain destination choice, many of these have limitations, including the assumption of a rational consumer and a focus on the functional attributes of travel and tourism (Lewis, Kerr, & Pomering, 2010). However, few studies handle the behavior of consumption of students during their holidays, especially the sports students. In making their travel decisions, consumers assess the attractiveness of a destination (Sirakaya et al., 2001). Positive associations with a destination increase the likelihood of selection (Woodside & Lyson-ski, 1989). The main hypothesis concerned the type of sports that students were engaged while on vacation. That is, we postulated that students also practiced sport during their vacation time. The second hypothesis concerned the mobility that these students should be accustomed to in order to travel in competitions abroad or at least away from home. The study was conducted in a quantitative manner, with questionnaires (N=451). The main results are based on 451 Physical Education (PE) students from the area of Lille, France, who participated in this study. In this population, 55.2% were single, 44.8% were married or in a relationship (10.2% had children). Initial results show that the average household income per month is about EUR 2,500; over 74% of them go on holiday for two weeks, on average. These students are coming from wealthy families. When they say that they are “going on vacation”, a majority of them (68.7%) indicate that the main reason is to relax. Contrary to the announced hypothesis, few PE students (4.9%) wish to practice physical activities during the holiday. Independently, we noticed that a majority of student (79.5%) preferred a single destination when the purpose was to make cultural trips (51.5%). However, the question of the budget remains an issue and they favor (78%) being hosted in the cheapest accommodations. For instance, the accommodations concerned are mostly camping or holiday villages. These findings can be interesting to satisfy this kind of demand and help providers build better strategies.
|
2010
|
tom 48
|
nr 1
15-20
EN
Jacques Derrida (1930-2004), master of the deconstructionist method and recognized as one of the greatest thinkers of our time, was in his youth, before beginning his career as a philosopher, a footballer who played this game with the Italian prisoners in Algiers, his birthplace, during World War II. In a 1991 interview, when he was 60, Derrida narrated in detail his childhood dream of becoming a professional football player, confiding that all of his philosophy and thought had been inspired by sport and the game of football. Starting from this biographical note, the aim of my study is to demonstrate, first of all, how Derrida's whole philosophy and technique of deconstruction really has its roots in the concept of sport. The French-Algerian philosopher understood sport as a cultural structure based on the concepts of play, game, body, rules, and all of the oppositional pairs deriving from différance and from the tensions it generates. Secondly, the study tries to show how sport is for Derrida a metaphor of life and its meaning, suspended between being and nothingness; a place and a field in which human beings act, learn and educate themselves, deconstructing, as in a text, the values and prejudices of their lives and understanding, through sport itself, their roles and responsibility toward themselves and the community in which they live.
|
|
nr 1
53-61
EN
The modern lifestyle, with its emphasis on enjoyment and immoderation, could lead a human being to the point where he is not a master of himself anymore. Inner desires and outer pressures force a man to take those actions that are not in accordance with his rational human nature and that are not good for him. According to the classical philosophical view of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, this clearly shows the inner slavery of modern man. Temperance, moderation or asceticism today seem old fashioned and unnecessary virtues; nevertheless, it is obvious that many problems of modern societies have roots in the absence of these virtues. These problems include a high percentage of obese population, different addictions and other health problems concerning the immoderate life style. It seems that nowadays enjoyment is the highest imperative for the individual and for society as a whole. However, these days it is possible to recognize the revival of these virtues. This paper points out the case of sport where these virtues are still cultivated and highly appreciated. At first this may seem somehow strange, because many times sport is perceived as connected with pleasure, fun and excess, but in reality sport demands much of participants. It could be even said that professional athletes are modern ascetics, and a big part of recreational sport is all but not enjoyment. In conclusion we can assert that virtues acquired in the field of sport can indeed help a human being to live a better life in general.
|
|
tom 52
|
nr 1
5-13
EN
In this paper I argue for a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching sport ethics. I call this a logical and evolutionary account because information that emanates from cell biology, anthropology, philosophy and everywhere in between, I claim, is needed in developing effective fair play pedagogies. The gist of the argument is this: We need to teach smarter, not just harder. Teaching smarter, I say, comes from an understanding of human nature and the logic of sport. I discuss animal behavior, emotions, genetic predispositions, human evolution, the structure of games, philosophical idealism, and other factors in producing five recommendations for teaching sport ethics.
EN
Sport is the research object of variety of sciences. But, what is sport and how to think it? The aim of this article is to give some basic thoughts about the nature of sport and to present, confront and evaluate different concepts of science with their different rival approaches and understanding of sport. In general three major groups of sciences can be differentiated: natural sciences and social sciences which share common quantitative (empirical and mathematical based) methodology of research, and human sciences or humanities with their method of reflection (the analysis of concepts and rational argumentation) which go beyond empirically measurable things. Because of different scientific approaches, different understanding and concepts of sport arise which try to prevail over in society. Our comprehension of sport is therefore greatly influenced by pre-accepted methodological position. If sport is equated with physical human body movement, then natural science with its empirical methodology seems to be adequate way for cognition of sport. For social scientists sport has important role in society, therefore it cannot be reduced to mere “body movement”. But humanists would say that sport is more than “body in movement” with influence in society: sport is a powerful idea or concept which needs a special unempirical method of research. Therefore human sciences with their rational reflection of human (personal) experiences can reveal us additional, but yet familiar dimensions of sport. Although their method is not empirically objective, they can deal with important life matters, moreover, their “a priori” qualitative approach to sport can give meaning and make sense out of sport, reflect about the aim and purpose of sport as well as make some ethical considerations about sport. In the article some examples are given and some problems regarding reduction of sport science to just one scientific approach are considered.
EN
The ancient Olympic Games were held in spaces and places consecrated for hospitality, to xénia, a Greek word that means “gifts” but also something that refers to and belongs to strangers and foreigners. Foreigners from every part of Greece met in Olympia to celebrate the agón. In this place, a stranger or a foreigner (hostis in Latin), probably a former enemy, became a friend because he was both guest and host (hospes in Latin) in the sanctuary-town, which belonged to the gods and to all of the Greeks, who recognized themselves in its spirit. This mechanism of hospitality formed the basis of the Olympic peace system and was the fundamental prerequisite for the celebration of agón. The practice of the agón was therefore made possible by a “gift” but also by “for-giveness” that allowed people to meet and compete. We can conclude that at the base of the Olympic (and Greek) ethics there was the concept of hospitality. Olympia was then the common home of all Greeks, the place where ethics were carried out, were put into practice, and concretely exercised. It is not a pure coincidence that the Greek word “ethics” is linked to the word éthos, which means “house”, “home”. For this reason, ethics can be thought as the art of hosting somebody in our own home and trusting him/her, just as it happened in ancient Olympia during the Olympic Games, which demonstrated that ethics was always a home’s ethics. Therefore, taking into account this cultural and philosophical framework, this study will develop a methodological approach, derived from deconstructionism, which will be applied to concepts that are both ambiguous and semantically rich in meaning, such as “gift”, “forgiveness”, xénos, hostis, and hospes. The first objective of this study is to reflect upon the connection between “gift” and “sport” and show the deep interconnection between the two concepts. The second is to use the model of Greek hospitality at the Olympic Games to deeply rethink sport and contemporary philosophy of sport education in terms of peace and multiculturalism.
|
|
nr 1
5-9
EN
Historically the notion about the understanding of women has been patriarchal in nature. The postmodern world has an inclination to redefine social mores. The prevailing thought in the 20th and 21st centuries supports the same thesis. The transformation of attitudes appears to be a regular phenomenon in the understanding of the issue at hand, thereby enlivening the motif of unity between the two. Gender, transgender, sexuality, etc., are in a state of transformation, so that to interpret and reinterpret a state of understanding and re-understanding of the issue of participation in sports has multiple significations. Sport in the 21st century constructs inimitable challenges for trans-athletes. A broad spectrum of identities is included under the umbrella of transgender identity. Transsexual or transitioned athletes may pose the greatest challenge to equity in sex-segregated sport competition. The subject under deliberation has a large number of interpretations, all of which center on a need to ‘deconstruct’ the present structuration of acceptance of sex and gender terminology. There is certainly a need to think and contemplate in broader terms about the meanings that assess the well-defined boundaries between disciplines of research. The present thesis highlights a deconstructive stance.
|
|
nr 1
18-27
EN
This article approaches women's scientific and humanistic production in the journal Citius, Altius, Fortius. Based on several previous bibliometric and thematic studies - where the journal's epistemological orientation and ideological and editorial trajectory were analyzed - this research aims to highlight and analyze the role of women who collaborate in the journal in order to set these representations. The article deals particularly with women's conceptions as physical activity practitioners.Descriptive, comparative and content analysis techniques have been used, emphasizing ideological discourse. In conclusion we point out the disproportion of women's scientific production, which shows males' dominant position in physical activity studies at that time.The very female authors' perspective about sportswomen is in fact an accommodative, and even a servile, position towards the dominant physicaleducative and sport discourses.
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.