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In seiner Schrift Valerius Terminus schreibt Francis Bacon, dass Adam die Dinge mittelst ihrer wahrhaften Namen habe beherrschen können. Dieser Gedanke wird oft als magisches Motiv bezeichnet und die vorliegende Studie befasst sich damit, ob die Idee der Beherrschung der Dinge durch die Namen in der Renaissance-Magie vorkam und ob Bacons philosophisches Projekt der grossen Erneuerung der Wissenschaften von dieser Magie beeinflusst wurde. Der erste Teil der Studie befasst sich mit der natürlichen Magie (Porta, Ficino, Campanella), der zweite behandelt die kabbalistische und neoplatonische Magie (Mirandola, Agrippa von Nettesheim). Im dritten Teil werden Bacons Ansichten über Magie wiedergegeben. Die Analyse dieser Ansichten belegt, dass sich Bacons philosophisches Projekt von der Renaissance-Magie in mehreren Hinsichten deutlich unterscheidet. Im letzen Teil versucht der Verfasser nachzuweisen, dass die Erwähnung der Macht der Wörter nicht als Folge eines Einflusses der Magie auf Bacon interpretiert werden darf. Vielmehr handelt es sich um den Ausdruck einer idealen Form der menschlichen Macht über die Natur, die der Mensch nach seinem Sündenfall jedoch nie vollkommen erreichen kann. Bacon stimmt mit der damaligen protestantischen Auffassung überein, dass die Folgen des Sündenfalls wettgemacht werden könnten und dass der Mensch zu seiner paradiesischen Souverenität und Macht durch „unreine“ Mittel wie Arbeit, Technik, und forchungswissenschaftliche institutionelle Verwaltung zurückfinden könne.
This paper analyses the impact of Spanish Renaissance science (particularly natural history and cosmography) – or rather, its methodology – on the scientific thought of Francis Bacon. The aim of this study is to identify the features of Baconian thought that are similar to some of the concepts and practices of Spanish scholars (Francisco Hernandez, Juan Huarte de San Juan and cosmographers of the House of Trade in Seville). Specifically, the text tries to demonstrate the hypothetic influence of Spanish thought on Bacon's concepts of the institutionalisation of knowledge, empirical and experimental methods of scientific research, the idea that "power is knowledge" and the ways of classification of sciences. Some simplifications and misinterpretations of the Spanish roots of Baconian science (Cañizares-Esguerra, A. Barrera-Osorio, T. J. Reiss, D. Goodman and J. Pimentel) are also reappraised or refuted in this paper.
The paper examines two visions of the relation between science and society through the utopian novel New Atlantis, by Bacon, and the dystopian novella, New Atlantis, by Le Guin. In Francis Bacon’s classic utopia scientists enjoy high social status and have all imaginable resources at their disposal, whereas the contemporary Ursula K. Le Guin's dystopia portrays heroic scientists in a totalitarian state, subjected to imprisonment, torture and constant surveillance for practicing ethical science. Taking cue from these two texts I employ MacIntyre’s framework of internal and external goods of a practice to discuss the relationship between the contemporary academia and the state. The internal goods of science (knowledge, "light", discoveries and inventions) are what scientists contribute to the society, whereas the external goods, such as material riches, prestige, power (or the opposite thereof) are what society supplies the scientists with. My conclusion is that values drawn from a religious tradition can help treat the external goods as means, and the internal goods as the actual ends of the academic practice.
Content available remote Antynomia niepokojów. Francis Bacon w świetle twórczości Tadeusza Różewicza
The aim of this article is to describe the intertextual relationships between poetry and visual arts on the example of Tadeusz Różewicz and Francis Bacon who is one of the most significant British painters of the late 20th century. The result of their discourse is Różewicz poem Francis Bacon, or Diego Velázquez in a Dentist’s Chair (Francis Bacon, albo Diego Velázquez na fotelu dentystycznym). It was the existential experience of anxiety that gave rise to their discussion. An artistic biography of Bacon, myths concerning him, his paintings, pre-texts of Bacon’s canvases as well as literary, spiritual and painterly connections are all integrated in Różewicz poem-hypertext. This article consists of three parts which depict, respectively, a portrait of Bacon as a human being and artist, a contrastive analysis of both artists’ views on art and Różewicz text-building strategy used in his simulated dialogue with Bacon.
Cultural, social and religious diversity is one of the most valued and most valuable aspects of our contemporary, globalized world. Sometimes it even tends to be described as a gift and invitation to dialogue instead of conflict and confrontation, as numerous authors – Samuel P. Huntington, Mary Habeck, Paul Berman, Bruce Bawer and many other – would have us to believe. Dialogue between religions – Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam – is an object of peculiar interest, expectations and hopes. This paper presents recent dialogic tendencies in cultures and societies as one of the most important manifestations of humanism (both religious and areligious), which is reconstructed in reference to social change, modernization, enlightenment, toleration and pluralism as phenomena analyzed and deliberated by Francis Bacon, on the one hand, and the contemporary Macedonian philosopher and Muslim theologian, Ismail Bardhi, on the other. Is enlightenment without secularization possible? Does religious passion and zeal always lead to suspension, “overcoming,” elimination of reason? In the conclusion, the significance of works by the young Polish artist Joanna Rajkowska is highlighted as an example of humanism and dialogism which struggles with the recent waves of islamophobia in Europe.
The main focus of this study is a reconstruction of the natural philosophy of the early modern Prešov's scholar Jan (Johannes) Bayer (1630–1674), with special regard to its Mosaic profile. After a critical reading of the research done on Bayer up to this point, the author concludes that Bayer’s natural-philosophical work, as such, has not yet been satisfactorily analyzed, nor has its connection to its supposedly two most important sources, Francis Bacon and Jan Amos Comenius, been sufficiently explored. The study therefore concentrates on a critical analysis of Bayer’s interpretation of creation and his natural history, which are then both situated in the philosophical context of their time. The author then notes that although Bayer’s project of erecting an original and on the (especially Aristotelian) tradition independent Mosaic natural philosophy ended in failure, the thinker’s work can be assessed as a valuable attempt to synthesize Baconian and Comenian motifs while at the same time reflecting broader intellectual contexts of the period.
Hlavním tématem této studie je rekonstrukce přírodní filosofie raně novověkého prešovského učence Jana (Johannese) Bayera (1630–1674) se zvláštním zřetelem k jejímu mosaickému profilu. Na základě kritické analýzy dosavadního bayerovského výzkumu dospívá autor ke zjištění, že dosud nebylo uspokojivě analyzováno ani Bayerovo přírodně-filosofické dílo jako takové, ani dostatečně prozkoumána jeho návaznost na předpokládané dva nejvýznamnější zdroje, Francise Bacona a Jana Amose Komenského. Studie je proto soustředěna na kritickou analýzu Bayerova výkladu stvoření a popisu přírody, které jsou následně zasazeny do dobového filosofického kontextu. Autor konstatuje, že ačkoliv Bayerův projekt vystavění originální a na (především aristotelské) tradici nezávislé mosaické přírodní filosofie skončil neúspěchem, lze myslitelovo dílo hodnotit jako cenný pokus o syntézu baconovských a komeniánských motivů, odrážející však rovněž širší dobové intelektuální souvislosti.
The article discusses and deconstructs the nature-culture dichotomy, examining how the image of nature in Romanticism was filtered through cultural matrices, especially in connection with the development of natural sciences, and the concept of cognition, which was most often perceived as based on the senses. Science, rooted in culture and society, and various cultural codes influenced a new poetics of nature. The analysis of the works by Mickiewicz and Słowacki demonstrates that old astronomical theories (attractive in terms of poetics and aesthetics, though widely rejected) co-existed in poetry alongside newer discoveries (Kepler), ultimately allowing poets to combine modern empiricism and materialism with spiritualism using the same method (inductive reasoning).
Artykuł prezentuje, dekonstruując dychotomię natura–kultura, jak w okresie romantyzmu obraz natury filtrowany był przez kulturowe matryce – zwłaszcza związane z rozwojem nauk ścisłych, a więc z poznaniem, które postrzegano najczęściej jako oparte na zmysłach, czysto materialne. Nauka, sama uwikłana w kulturę i społeczeństwo, dostarczała tworzywa do nowej poetyki natury wraz z repertuarem kodów kulturowych. Na przykładzie Mickiewicza i Słowackiego ukazane zostanie, jak mogła współistnieć stara astronomia (poetycko i estetycznie atrakcyjna, choć powszechnie już odrzucona) obok nowszych odkryć (Kepler), a wraz z nowożytnym empiryzmem i materializmem (Bacon) można było zespolić spirytualizm, korzystając z tej samej metody poznawczej (indukcja).
Autorzy analizują zasadność naturalizmu metodologicznego jako metody nauk przyrodniczych. Naturalizm metodologiczny głosi, że nauka powinna powoływać się wyłącznie na czynniki przyrodnicze, pomijając odniesienia do czynników nadnaturalnych, takich jak Bóg. Według Autorów naturalizm metodologiczny jest zbędnym dodatkiem do nauki, który nie wspomaga rozwoju wiedzy naukowej, a ponadto zniechęca do zgłębiania innych rodzajów wiedzy. Ich zdaniem ta metoda nie wnosi do nauki nic, co nie byłoby już wyrażone w propozycji Francisa Bacona, który ograniczał naukę do badania i opisu tego, co można zaobserwować empirycznie, zapewniając tym samym obiektywizm badań i uwalniając naukę od wpływu przekonań metafizycznych. Jak wskazują Autorzy, przyjęcie naturalizmu metodologicznego w nauce, zakładającego, że poznać można tylko to, co jest empirycznie obserwowalne, nie tylko nie gwarantuje obiektywizmu nauki, ale i niesłusznie wzmacnia pozycję naturalizmu metafizycznego, zgodnie z którym istnieje tylko empirycznie poznawalna przyroda.
Authors analyze the validity of methodological naturalism as a method of natural science. Methodological naturalism claims that science should invoke only natural causes, omitting references to the supernatural beings, such as God. According to the authors, methodological naturalism is a redundant add on to science which is not supporting the progress of science and even discourages the exploration of other kinds of knowledge. In their view, this method brings to science nothing more than what already was contained in Francis Bacon’s proposition which restricted science to the study and description of what is empirically observable, guarantying at the same time the objectivity of research and freeing science from the influence of metaphysical beliefs. As authors indicate, accepting methodological naturalism in science, assuming that only the empirically observable could be known, not only does not guarantee objectivity of science but also incorrectly enforces metaphysical naturalism claiming that there exist solely empirically knowable nature.
Content available Cervantes a tolerance
The treatment of the morisco theme in Don Quixote could be understood as an index — a proof — of the philosophical and spiritual differences between Cervantes and the official ideology of his time. In his discourse, Ricote (the morisco character in Don Quixote II, 1615) names the ‘freedom of conscience’, an important theme in European religious discourse of the 16th and 17th centuries. This article deals with the interpretation of that expression in the literary and ideological context of Cervantesʼ novel and Cervantesʼ world. It seems that the expression refers to the Peace of Augsburg, and it could be interpreted as an appeal for tolerance, in this case regarding the morisco question (the moriscos were banned in 1609, before the publication of the second volume of Don Quixote). Yet this is a problematic interpretation: in Spain, the expression was commonly associated with heresy. It is in this sense that Lope de Vega uses the expression. This in turn is what allows us to characterize Lope de Vegaʼs literary work as conservative and Cervantesʼ as liberal.
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