Cultural, social and religious diversity is one of the most valued and most valuable aspects of our contemporary, globalized world. Sometimes it even tends to be described as a gift and invitation to dialogue instead of conflict and confrontation, as numerous authors – Samuel P. Huntington, Mary Habeck, Paul Berman, Bruce Bawer and many other – would have us to believe. Dialogue between religions – Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam – is an object of peculiar interest, expectations and hopes. This paper presents recent dialogic tendencies in cultures and societies as one of the most important manifestations of humanism (both religious and areligious), which is reconstructed in reference to social change, modernization, enlightenment, toleration and pluralism as phenomena analyzed and deliberated by Francis Bacon, on the one hand, and the contemporary Macedonian philosopher and Muslim theologian, Ismail Bardhi, on the other. Is enlightenment without secularization possible? Does religious passion and zeal always lead to suspension, “overcoming,” elimination of reason? In the conclusion, the significance of works by the young Polish artist Joanna Rajkowska is highlighted as an example of humanism and dialogism which struggles with the recent waves of islamophobia in Europe.