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Apoptosis is central to the biology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) gene, is known to be a regulator of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) through inhibition of the same NF-kB. The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) gene plays an important role for the efficient maintenance of genome integrity. PARP-1 protein is required for the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation from the mitochondria to the nucleus. We report here two interesting cases of family melanoma, a father and son 84 and 40 years old, respectively. The histological evaluation of the lesions of both men revealed diffused superficial melanoma with epithelioid cells. We evaluated the differential expression of LDOC-1 and PARP-1 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes of both the father and son. We found that both LDOC-1 and PARP-1 genes were down-regulated in both patients compared with those of controls. These data suggest that low levels of expression of LDOC-1 and PARP-1 mRNA may be associated with familial melanoma.
The aim of this research was to assess the risk of carcinogenesis induced by the metallic materials intended for orthopaedic implants. The report is an analytical summary of changes in the expression of cancer-related genes in human chondrocytes of normal and neoplastic phenotype. Cq values (quantification cycle values) obtained from qRT-PCR reactions (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions) were used to count Fc values (fold change values) for each gene. Differences in Fc values obtained for primary and cancer cells grown on the surface of medical steel AISI316L and titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy Ti6Al4V were then analyzed by t-Student test. The results indicate that for cancer cells grown on the surfaces of both examined materials the fold change greater than 2, usually considered essential, was found for LUM gene involved in sarcoma induction. For FOS gene, also involved in sarcoma induction, the Fc value was also very close to 2 in the primary cells exposed to Ti6Al4V alloy. The remaining observed changes were rather subtle, although they cannot be omitted from further studies because differences in gene expression in primary and tumor cells grown on the same biomaterial were statistically significant in several cases. The compilation of qRT-PCR experiments carried out on primary and cancer cells in parallel allowed to identify possible future contraindications for patients with a genetic predisposition to cancer or with cancer history.
Content available remote Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 expression in fibroblasts of Down syndrome subjects
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal disorder. It is featured by intellectual disability and is caused by trisomy 21. People with DS can develop some traits of Alzheimer disease at an earlier age than subjects without trisomy 21. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process under both normal physiological and pathological conditions. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is a mediator of programmed-necrotic cell death and appears to be also involved in the apoptosis. The aim of the present work was to detect the intracellular distribution of PARP-1 protein using immunofluorescence techniques and the expression of PARP-1 mRNA in culture of fibroblasts of DS subjects. The analysis of the intracellular distribution of PARP-1 show a signal at the nuclear level in about 75 % of the cells of DS subjects with a slight uniformly fluorescent cytoplasm. In contrast, in about 65% of the analyzed fibroblasts of the normal subjects only a slight fluorescent was found. These observations have been confirmed by PARP-1 gene mRNA expression evaluation. The data obtained from this study strengthen the hypothesis that the over-expression of PARP-1 gene could have a role in the activation of the apoptotic pathways acting in the neurodegenerative processes in DS.
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