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EN
Introduction: Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death in the world. The lives of patients with vascular defects can be saved by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, it is associated with an increased risk of developing depression after surgery. Meterial and Methods: The aim of the study is to present the results of the latest research on postoperative depression after CABG, including studies describing the course of the disease, its consequences for the patient’s prognosis and treatment. The publications available on the PubMed platform published after 2011 were reviewed. Results: Depression before and after CABG affects 30–40% of patients, mostly women. Established after surgery and untreated, it persists for many years. The level of anxiety in patients decreases systematically after surgery. Indicators that may correlate with the patient’s postoperative depression, including cortisol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidative stress biomarkers, are being investigated. The occurrence of depression in patients after CABG has a number of negative consequences. Those include: weaker response to treatment, greater chance of relapse, and increased readmission frequency and mortality. Treatment of patients with this disorder involves the use of antidepressants (most often SSRIs – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and/or various types of psychotherapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) at the forefront. Conclusions: Depression following CABG decreases the quality of life and worsens patient prognosis. It is necessary to detect this condition early after surgery and to apply treatment, taking into account the cardiological disorders of the patient.
EN
Background: Both depressive disorders and nicotine use are proven and important risk factors of dementia. The purpose of this study was to verify if cigarette smoking and depression symptoms together are disadvantageous for the prognosis in mild cognitive impairment. Material and methods: A total of 43 patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment were included in the study. ADAS-Cog was performed upon inclusion in the study and again at least 2 years later. Additionally, patients with ≥18 points in MADRS were qualified as depressive. The Fagerström scale for nicotine dependence was administered to smokers. Results: Our study shows a relation between severity of depressive symptoms and further deterioration of cognitive functions according to ADAS-cog scale. Regression analysis revealed that smoking associated with severity of depressive disorders is also correlated with the progression of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: The results of our study are based on a small number of subjects and should be regarded as early findings. Moreover, nicotine dependency should not be regarded as an isolated factor affecting mood disorders and cognitive impairment progression. Further studies on larger groups of patients and using more sensitive methods of cognitive function assessment are needed.
EN
Depressive disorders have become one of the greatest health problems of the modern society, with about 350 million people suffering from depression around the world (WHO). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depressed mood and symptoms indicating the possibility of depression or its progression among young people living in the city of Szczecin, Poland. Data from 150 students (107 women and 43 men) from one of the local universities constituted the material for this anonymous study which was based on the Beck Depression Inventory – 21 questions assessing the severity of depressive symptoms. Our results showed that 78% of women and 89% of men did not show symptoms of depression (Fig. 1). The incidence of mild depressive episodes was revealed in 15% of women and 7% of men, moderate episodes in 3% of women and 2% of men, and severe depression in 4% of women and 2% of men.
EN
Aim: Self-destructiveness involves behaviours whose likely negative effect is mediated by additional factors, and the relationship between behaviour and damage is perceived as probable. The main objective of the research is to evaluate the behaviour of indirect self-destructiveness in patients with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (compared to the persons without mental disorders-control group). Material and method: Clinical group included 40 patients of the Department of Adult Psychiatry at the Medical University of Lodz – people reporting symptoms of anxiety and/or depressed mood. The control group consisted of people without mental disorders. Polish version of Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CS-DS) adapted by Suchanska and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Modified (HADS-M) by Snaith and Zigmond were used. The survey aimed at collecting sociodemographic data. Results: Differences were noticed between the clinical and control group in the following indirect autodestructive behaviours: Poor Health Maintenance, Lack of Planfulness, Personal and Social Neglects, Helplessness and Passiveness. Behaviours in all of those areas were more frequent in the clinical group. There were no significant differences noticed between groups in terms of: Transgression and Risk, alcohol use and smoking. Conclusions: Anxiety and depressive disorders promotes occurring of indirect self destructive behaviours.
PL
Cel: Autodestruktywność pośrednia obejmuje zachowania, których prawdopodobny negatywny skutek jest upośredniony przez dodatkowe czynniki. Głównym celem badania była ocena zachowań o charakterze autodestruktywności pośredniej u osób z objawami lęku i/lub depresji (w porównaniu z grupą kontrolną, złożoną z osób bez zaburzeń psychicznych). Materiał i metoda: Grupę kliniczną stanowiło 40 pacjentów Kliniki Psychiatrii Dorosłych Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi. Były to osoby zgłaszające się z objawami lęku i/lub obniżonego nastroju. Równoliczną grupę kontrolną stanowiły osoby bez zaburzeń psychicznych. Zastosowano polską wersję skali chronicznej autodestruktywności (Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale, CS-DS) Kelley w adaptacji Suchańskiej oraz Szpitalną Skalę Lęku i Depresji w wersji zmodyfikowanej (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Modified, HADS-M) autorstwa Snaitha i Zigmonda. Opracowana przez autorów ankieta miała na celu zebranie podstawowych danych socjodemograficznych. Wyniki: Zaobserwowano różnice między grupą kliniczną a kontrolną w przypadku następujących grup zachowań pośrednio autodestruktywnych: zaniedbania zdrowotne, nieuważność, nieostrożność i brak planowania, zaniedbania osobiste i społeczne, pasywność (bierność). Zachowania z wymienionych obszarów okazały się częstsze w grupie klinicznej. Nie stwierdzono istotnych różnic między grupami w zakresie zachowań transgresyjnych, spożywania alkoholu i palenia papierosów. Wnioski: Można przypuszczać, że zaburzenia depresyjne i lękowe sprzyjają występowaniu zachowań pośrednio autodestruktywnych.
EN
The article is a review of neuroimaging studies performed during the Stroop paradigm based tasks among individuals suffering from unipolar and bipolar depression. The aim of the article is to highlight the validity od Stroop paradigm in neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric diagnosis of depressin, used as a tool for assessing cognitive functioning, but also claryfying the etiopathology of depressive disorders. The first of the article is a review of previous reports, describing resting brain activity abnormalities in affective disorders called neurocorrelates of depression. Then the most common cognitive dysfunctions represented by unipolar and bipolar patents will be discussed brefly and the impact of these dysfuctionts on Stroop test performance. In the last two parts of the article you can find a review of neuroimaging studies during Stroop task performance among healthy individuals and also the comparisons of brain activity during the Stroop interference effect in the group of healthy and depressive subjects. Different brain activity during stroop task among patients suffering from depression comaring with healthy individuals and some differences in brain pattern during the same cognitive task among unipolar and bipolar individuals may indicate the validity of Stroop test in neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric diagnosis.
EN
Purpose: Depressive disorders and obesity belong to the most frequently occurring diseases. Improper nutritional behaviours are observed in patients suffering from recurring depressive disorders. We have undertaken research aimed at comparing the body weight composition and the content of selected nutrients in the food intake of patients with diagnosed depressive disorders. Materials and methods: 131 patients (76 women and 55 men) suffering from depressive episode took part in the study. The patients had their body composition analysed using electrical bioimpedance measured by a MALTRON BioScan 920-2 device. The assessment of the diet was conducted using a 24-hour interview concerning the day preceding the examination. Results: Male with diagnosed depression and obesity were more often married or had lower level of education as compared to male with the normal body weight. Obese female with diagnosed depression had more episodes of the disease and were older as compared to female with the normal body weight. Both obese male and female were characterised by a higher percentage content of visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue and a higher VAT (visceral adipose tissue)/SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) ratio as well as a lower content of fat-free body mass. Conclusions: Patients with diagnosed depression, with the normal body weight and obesity, were characterised by an inappropriate supply of proteins, carbohydrates, total fats, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and dietary fibre.
EN
Psychology of old age is a new field that attempts to explain the functioning of the psyche during the final stages of life. Psychoanalysis was initially very skeptical towards older patients, but faced with increasing number of senior adults, the fields of psychology and psychoanalysis had to adapt, searching for explanations and answers aimed at understanding human aging. The goal of geriatric psychotherapy is to assist elderly individuals in their psychological mentalization, including the mental process of mourning their "self," which goes through a difficult period of losses, so that they do not fall into psychosomatic symptoms or depression. Psychotherapy can thus support a positive sense of identity.
EN
Curiosity is a personality trait that is inversely related to depression and positively related to subjective wellbeing. However, the relationship between curiosity and these two outcomes is still unclear which hampers our general understanding of well-being. Based on research within positive psychology that showed character strengths such as curiosity can indirectly decrease depression, we hypothesized that the inverse relationship between curiosity and depression would be mediated by subjective well-being. Two hundred and fifty seven participants, between 18 and 64 years old (M = 24.50, SD = 8.33) completed a web-based survey comprising: The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory - II, Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression and the Steen Happiness Index. We found that well-being mediated the relationship between curiosity and depression. The results indicate that curious individuals tend to report higher levels of subjective well-being which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of depression. Our findings contribute to the understanding of positive results obtained from clinical samples that underwent positive psychotherapy of depression.
EN
Introduction: Death anxiety, fear of abundance, isolation, stigma of the disease and medication side effects are among the most common sources of anxiety and depression in patients with breast cancer. Purpose: To examine the possible relationship between religiosity, psychological resilience and depression on breast cancer patients. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in this study which 152 breast cancer patients participated. Data were collected with the following instruments: Patient Health Questionnaire-2-item scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25 and Centrality of Religiosity Scale and a special designed sheet reporting social, demographic and clinical characteristics. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Statistical Package for the Social Science V25. Descriptive statistics such means, and frequencies were calculated and inferential statistics such correlation test, simple and multiple regression analysis were applied. Results: Approximately 1 in 3 patients suffered symptoms of depression while they were reporting moderate religiosity and resilience values. Based on the four-step mediation analysis religiosity was strongly associated with psychological resilience but it was not found to affect directly either depression, but psychological resilience can be a mediator between religiosity and depression. Conclusion: This study supports the notion thatreligiosity and spirituality can have a beneficial influence on health outcomes.
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Content available remote V odlišnosti stejní? Psychopatologie v interkulturní perspektivě
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EN
This paper outlines the development of intercultural psychopathology in recent decades and points out the consequences of this development for the theory and practice of diagnosis, psychotherapy and patient care. The main part of the paper gives a description of specific developments in China which have evidently been responsible for the fact that depression is almost unknown in that country, where – unlike in Europe – neurasthenia is a common diagnosis. General conclusions are then drawn from the information presented.
EN
Aim The objective of the study was to assess psychological aspects of the quality of life of patients in long-term stationary care. Material and methods The research was carried out from December 2018 to February 2019. The study was conducted among 92 patients of the Nursing and Care Institution. The research method was a diagnostic survey, while the research technique was a survey. The research tools were the author's questionnaire and the Beck’s Depression Scale. The results obtained from the questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis. The differences between the variables were verified using the chi-square independence test and the Kruskal-Wallis test, assuming a significance level of p<0.05. Results The occurrence of depression in the respondents was assessed using the Beck Depression Scale. Lack of depression was found in 40.2% of the respondents, mild depression in 45.7% and moderate depression in 14.1%. Analysis of the research showed that the marital status of the respondents significantly affected their incidence of depression. It was found that moderate depression was 38.4% more common (p=0.0409). The most numerous group of respondents were respondents, who often experienced anxiety (80.4%) and irritability (56.5%). The most common situations causing irritability and anxiety in subjects is lack of independence (53.3%), which has a significant impact on the feeling of loneliness among the subjects. Conclusions The most common situations causing irritability and anxiety in subjects result from a lack of independence, which affects their sense of loneliness. Subjects who did not spend time among other patients more often felt helpless and confused.
EN
Introduction. Depression is a mental illness widespread in the population and is the most common mental disorder. There has been an increase in number of depression diagnoses among the wider population in the past few years. Aim. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge regarding the attitudes towards depression and to measure the occurrence of depression symptoms among open populations of Polish and British people. Materials and methods. The study was conducted from March to May 2015 by posting an electronic survey on a social network in Polish and English language. 143 completed questionnaires were obtained. The method of diagnostic survey was used in this study. The research tools was a survey created by the authors and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results. Every third respondent acknowledged that they have a sufficient knowledge of depression. Based on BDI results, 75% of Poles and 39% of British did not show any signs of depression. Conclusions. The British understand the term “depression” correctly more often than Poles. The inhabitants of Poland and Great Britain take a positive attitude towards people with depression. The British have depressive symptoms more frequently than Poles. Nationality and age do not affect the severity of depressive symptoms in both groups.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the most important health problems and one of the most common chronic diseases. The occurrence of COPD is associated with a particular dimension of physical suffering, the source of which is the difficulty in breathing. A significant percentage of patients experience the mental consequences of illness such as depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients with medium-severe and severe forms of COPD and to assess the cost of coexistence of depression in this group of patients. The retrospective study, based on medical records, included two groups of patients: Group 1- 63 persons and Group 2– 60 persons. The study evaluated the following parameters: degree of severity of COPD according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), degree of severity of dyspnea using the mMRC scale of dyspnea developed by the Medical Research Council and occurrence of depressive symptoms and their severity using the Beck Depression Scale questionnaire. Patients were treated at the CENTER for Respiratory Medicine between January 2016 and December 2016. Results of our study showed that in both treatment groups analysis of the answers received from the Beck’s Depression Scale questionnaire revealed that all these patients have depressive symptoms of varying severity.
EN
The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a particular and rare situation. COVID-19 has affected and is likely to affect people from many countries, in many geographical locations. We are in the midst of a worldwide pandemic, with cities and even entire countries shutting down. The coronavirus has affected nearly every aspect of our lives, from school to work, to sports, to where we eat and what we do. All these changes affected people physically, but also psychologically. It is understandable that during times like this, people may be feeling afraid, worried, anxious, and depressed due to the constantly changing alerts and media coverage regarding the spread of the virus. Hence, the main aim of our paper is to explore the linkage between the coronavirus COVID-19 disease and mental health conditions, such as stress, anxiety and depression. Everyone may experience fear of the consequences of the infection with a potentially fatal new virus, and might experience mental stress, anxiety, loneliness, depression. Based on experience from past global serious viral experiences, the development and implementation of mental health assessment, support, treatment, and services are crucial and pressing goals for the health response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Human beings have an incredible ability to adapt and survive, through altruistic and co-operative means. So for each one of us is important to look after ourselves and each other.
EN
This paper is an attempt to answer the question on the role of the social support in the process of coping with stress within a group of Polish students in an acculturative stress situation. The research had two primary goals. The first goal was to show the differences between students of Polish nationality enrolled at foreign universities and students of Polish universities in terms of social support, coping with stress and the depression level. The second goal was to examine relations between those three variables. In order to select groups with high and low social support the scale of social support by Kmiecik-Baran has been used. In order to define styles of coping with stress, preferred by the cured drug addicts, the Polish version of The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations has been used. Both groups responded to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), consisting of a self-evaluated scale of 21 items, each with four assertions corresponding to increasing levels of depressive symptoms. The obtained results indicate that students of Polish universities were characterized by a lower level of social support and they reported higher levels of depression than the control group of Polish students living abroad. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to the measures of coping styles. According to the results of the study, the stronger preference for the emotion-oriented coping style, the higher level of depression, which indicates that this coping style was ineffective in dealing with stressful life events in both groups of students. In addition, the level of received social support was negatively correlated (r = –0,589) with the task-oriented coping style in a group of students in Poland.
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Content available remote Vnímanie depresie v kontexte tradičných škôl a evolučnej psychológie
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EN
This theoretical article first highlights the need for the study of depression, due its increasing occurrence and impact on life. Then it describes its causes through traditional paradigms and also shows the possibility to enrich the traditional perceptions of the causes of major depressive disorder with the insight applying ideas of evolutionary psychology into the area of self-regulation. Thus it is possible to perceive depression as evolutionary advantage that extends the capabilities of adaptation and therefore improves the quality of life. From a scientific perspective, this view can lead to a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of depression as a disorder. Based on these findings practical and theoretical implementation is discussed.
SK
Tento teoretický príspevok v úvode poukazuje na potrebu štúdia depresie kvôli nárastu jej výskytu a vplyvu na život. Následne popisuje príčiny jej vzniku prostredníctvom tradičných škôl a tiež poukazuje, ako by bolo možné obohatiť bežné a tradičné vnímanie príčin depresívnej poruchy o pohľad, ktorý aplikuje myšlienky evolučnej psychológie do oblasti sebaregulácie. Takto je možné vnímať depresiu ako evolučnú výhodu, ktorá rozširuje možnosti adaptácie, a tak zvyšuje kvalitu života. Z vedeckého pohľadu tento pohľad môže viesť k hlbšiemu a komplexnejšiemu pochopeniu depresie ako poruchy. Na základe týchto poznatkov diskutujeme, ako by bolo možné použiť tieto poznatky na teoretickej a praktickej úrovni.
EN
Our research concerns the problematic use of a mobile phone, which was carried out on a Polish sample. We adapted an instrument to measure that construct, created by Bianchi and Phillips – Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS). The Polish equivalent of this scale, developed by Izdebski and Kotyśko, is called the Problematic Cell Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPUQ). Our main goal was to determine if personality variables and depression are related to using a mobile phone. The study included 315 mobile phone users between the ages 18 to 62. Results showed that problematic mobile phone use was related to a young age, extraversion, low agreeableness and a high level of depression.
EN
Although randomized trials have proven the benefit of revascularization with the use of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or stenting (CAS) for appropriate patients, health care purchasers increasingly look beyond clinical outcome toward measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in apportioning limited resources. 36 patients after TIA participated in this study. One group (n=18) had undergone CEA, whereas the second group (n=18) had undergone CAS. Both groups were matched according to age and sex. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) was used to assess the differences in patient-perceived HRQoL in two groups of patients who had suffered minor cerebral ischemic events. No significant difference in health profile between the CEA and CAS was detected for the eight SF-36 domains. However, the CEA group rated a significantly improved change in general health after one year compared with the CAS group (p<0.001). A greater proportion of the CEA group comparing to the CAS group thought their treatment had been successful and that their health had been improved (p<0.001). Both groups shared the same level of anxiety over potential future cerebral ischemic events (p=0.3). Patients' perception of HRQoL measured by the SF-36 domains was almost identical between the CEA and CAS apart from a small but significant improvement in self-reported overall health in the CEA group after one year follow up. HRQoL outcome measures may be of value in future clinical trials of cerebral revascularization to compare the effectiveness of carotid revascularization with the particular method of operation.
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This study presents the investigation the efficiency of the volitional strategies in the group of depressive person while making interpersonal decision. The theoretical basis of this study is Kuhl’s Depression Theory. According to Kuhl’s theory an important determinants of depression are the persevering intentional states which can not be eliminated and postponed: the so called degenerated intentions. The degenerated intention overloads the mental resource of working memory. As a result, enactment of a new or realistic intentions may be impaired because of unavailability of the memory capacity needed for their execution. It leads to deficits in motivational and executive levels. This research was done to test an efficiency of the selected volitional strategies (emotional control, selective attention, prasimony of information processing) in experimental conditions with the well described intention in the depressive and health group of subjects (in Kuhl’s study the degenerated intention was inducted by experimental conditions). This study was inspired by an idea of Maria Lewicka. The research results show the decreased efficiency of volitional strategies in the group of depressive subjects in compare to the healthy subjects, independency of the research conditions.
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