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PL
Kryteria oceny jakości drewna jako surowca budowlanego obejmują jego wartość techniczną i użytkową oraz estetykę. Konstrukcje drewniane powinny wykazywać się odpowiednią wytrzymałością mechaniczną, dlatego za wady uznaje się uszkodzenia jego struktury, powodowane przez czynniki abiotyczne (np. wiatr) i biotyczne (np. grzyby).
EN
Harvested timber has many various wood defects. Analyses were carried out on material collected in Zaporowo Forest District (northern Poland). Results show that various defects were found in 35% of harvested timber on average. The share of timber with defects varied among individual species (pine – 44%, spruce – 22%, oak – 14%, birch – 9%, beech – 5%, lime and larch – 2% each, hornbeam and alder – 1% each). The individual wood defects appeared in harvested timber with following frequency: knots – 55%, knobs – 22%, foreign bodies – 7%, curvature – 5%, inner rot – 5%, galls – 2%, blue stain – 1%, insect holes – 1%, false heartwood – 1%, and cracks – 1%. Timber defects resulted in reduction of income from the sales. A decrease in income caused by various defects amounted from 0.07 PLN/m³ for brown sap stain to 68.83 PLN/m³ for knots. The greatest effect of wood defects on the reduction of income from sales was recorded for oak timber (518.30 PLN/m³), while the smallest for aspen (4.63 PLN/m³). Due to the fact that in almost all analysed tree species the dominant effect on the reduction of income from timber sales was caused by knots (open knots and knobs) systematic solutions need to be found in order to reduce the effect of this defect. It is particularly important in the case of oak timber, where a decrease in income from timber sales connected with this defect was the greatest.
EN
Creating strip roads in second age class stands is an indispensible operation for carrying out thinning. It is especially important in places where there is an intention to do a first thinning using mechanised thinning operations. Felling trees to create strip roads results in altered conditions for the tree growth of neighbouring trees. In particular, this is due to an increase in exposure to sunlight. This can lead to changes in the growth of trees and consequently changes in the morphology of the trunk and the development of defects. The objective of this paper was to analyse the frequency of the presence of particular defects in the structure and shape of spruce in a five-year period after the creation of a strip road. The research was carried out in an artificially regenerated spruce stand within the spruce’s natural, northern habitat in Poland. A 34-year-old stand underwent a systematic thinning scheme which involved the removal of every eighth tree row. The analysis was carried out on trees growing both adjacent to the strip roads (which had a greater growing area around them and greater access to sunlight) as well as trees from further within the stand. Diameter growth was taken in three places: at breast height, in the middle of the trunk between breast height and the base of the crown, as well as at the base of the crown. The average incremental growth, pith eccentricity taper and ovality were calculated. No statistically significant difference in defects between the trees growing by the strip road and those growing further in the stand was observed. Greater taper on mid-tree logs in comparison to butt logs was observed. Insignificant changes in the morphology of the trunks, supports the validity of cutting strip roads in second age class stands.
PL
Zakładanie szlaków operacyjnych staje się niezbędne przy stosowaniu współczesnych technologii w gospodarce leśnej. Ich obecność to również zwiększony dostęp do światła dla drzew rosnących na ich skraju, co z kolei może wpływać na różnice we wzroście tych drzew w porównaniu z drzewami wewnątrz drzewostanu. Celem pracy była analiza częstości występowania niektórych wad budowy i kształtu mogących wpływać na jakość surowca drzewnego w 5 lat po wykonaniu zabiegu. Drzewostan świerkowy w wieku 34 lat został poddany trzebieży schematycznej poprzez wycięcie co 8. rzędu drzew. Analizie poddano drzewa rosnące przy szlaku PS (z asymetrycznie większymi stoiskami i dostępem do światła) oraz drzewa wewnątrz drzewostanu ( WD 5–10 m od osi szlaku). Badano przyrosty na wysokości pierśnicy, w połowie długości między pierśnicą a podstawą korony i u podstawy korony oraz obliczono przeciętny przyrost, mimośrodowość rdzenia i zbieżystość. Nie zaobserwowano występowania statystycznie istotnych różnic pomiędzy analizowanymi cechami drzew PS i WD, jednakże u drzew rosnących PS zaobserwowano istotnie większą zbieżystość kłód środkowych w porównaniu z odziomkowymi. W krótkim okresie (5 lat) po założeniu szlaków w drzewostanie świerkowym II klasy wieku nie stwierdzono zatem statystycznie istotnych różnic w morfologii pni drzew rosnących przy szlaku i w drzewostanie. Niemniej jednak zaobserwowano: 1) tendencje do zwiększonych przyrostów u drzew PS (szczególnie w połowie pnia) w 5. roku po wykonaniu zabiegu oraz 2) wzrost zbieżystości kłód środkowych wyrobionych z drzew PS. Wyniki te sugerują przeprowadzenie podobnych badań w dłuższym odstępie czasowym (niż 5-letni) od założenia szlaków.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki analizy porównawczej jakości surowca świerkowego pochodzącego z drzewostanów naturalnych (rezerwatowych) i drzewostanów pełniących funkcje gospodarcze. W analizach uwzględniono również wady drewna wpływające na wyniki klasyfikacji badanego surowca oraz częstotliwość ich występowania. Wytypowane do badań drzewostany zlokalizowane były w terenach górskich: w Sudetach i Karpatach. W wyniku przeprowadzonych analiz stwierdzono, że nieznacznie lepsze pod względem jakości surowca drzewnego są w porównaniu z drzewostanami naturalnymi (rezerwatowymi) drzewostany pełniące funkcje gospodarcze.
EN
The aim of this study is to determine the variation in the quality structure of spruce timber and to analyze the frequency of occurrence of trees with defects, including the generic structure of defects in natural stands (forest reserves) and stands serving economic functions. The study was conducted on 20 experimental plots located within the Sudeten and Carpathian Mountains, of which 10 were located in the area of nature reserves or national parks while the other 10 - in the managed stands (table 1). Each experimental plot constituted 5 or 10% of the area of the whole stand, depending on its differentiation. The following tasks were performed on the experimental plots: measurement of the breast-height diameter of each tree with a thickness of at least 7 cm, measurement of the height of each tree, quality assessment of the first section of the tree stem from the base along with its quality-dimensional class or group [Zasady... 2003], recording the types and varieties of wood defects. Analyzing the research material obtained, the stem of each tree growing on an experimental plot underwent simulated division into sections corresponding to the quality-dimensional classes and groups which could theoretically be distinguished over the whole length of a stem up to its top. The starting point was the quality-dimensional class noted in the butt section of the stem (section 1) during the field research. The above tasks included the use of the Radwański tables [Roczniki... 1956], which allowed the determination of the size and volume of each section of the spruce stems on the basis of the breast-height diameter and the tree height; wood defects, noted in field, were also taken into account. The material obtained was divided into 2 groups: data from the reserves and from the managed stands. For the material grouped in this way, juxtapositions were made of the average volumes of individual stem sections in quality-dimensional classes and groups of timber and the percentages of particular timber classes and groups in the two stand types were calculated. The material was also analyzed taking into account the generic structure of defects (percentages of individual trees with particular wood defects in a given group of stands). The next stage consisted in statistical analyses using the U-Mann-Whitney test, examining the significance of differences in the quality-dimensional structure of timber and the share of trees with defects between the two groups of stands. The research showed that trees growing in natural stands (reserves) are characterized by a greater average height, thickness (d1.3 and d1/2) and volume of individual trees as compared with the same characteristics of spruce trees in managed stands (table 2). Also, the average volume of the large-sized timber sections (WA, WB1, WB, WC, WD) of individual trees from natural forests dominated the volume of tree sections in managed stands. Despite that fact, the volume/ha of natural forest stands was lower (355.91 m3/ha) than of managed stands (380.27 m3/ha). By analyzing the quality-dimensional structure of the examined timber it was found that the proportion of higher quality timber classes (WA and WB) prevails in the managed stands, resulting in a lower share of the WC class of timber (fig. 1). Only the share of WB1 class timber prevails in natural stands. The managed stands also showed a larger share of medium-sized timber (groups S1, S2 and S4) as compared to natural forests. TheU-Mann-Whitney statistical test, however, did not show statistically significant differences in the timber quality structure between the natural and the managed stands (U = 49.00, Z = -0.0378, p = 0.9698). Subsequently, it was found that the proportion of trees with quality reduced by defects was higher in the natural stands (70.38%) as compared to the managed stands (67.13%). The main defect, decisive for timber quality, were knots (in both groups of stands). The share of trees with that defect was greater in the stands of natural origin (fig. 2). In those stands, there was also a larger share of trees with rot (external and internal rot) and unilateral curvatures. The managed stands demonstrated a share of injuries (overgrown and open ones) as well as bilateral and multilateral curvatures that was higher than in the natural stands. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that in the managed stands within the research area a higher quality of spruce timber as well as higher volume/ha were noted as compared to the natural stands (forest reserves). Stands in forest reserves are generally located at higher altitudes in the mountains or hardly accessible areas; their main purpose are protective functions, they also serve the purposes of research. In the stands situated in forest reserves there was reported, in comparison with the managed stands, a higher incidence of trees with a large number of knots and highly affected by rot. A frequent presence of such defects is inevitable there because this group does not undergo any management cuts that would improve timber quality. Moreover, the presence of rot is due to the advanced age of these stands. At the same time, what is disturbing is a large share of trees with injuriesin the managed stands. Given that spruce is very sensitive to mechanical damage of the stem, resulting in rapid development of rot, caution is recommended during forest management work and harvesting in spruce stands.
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