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EN
In this article I analyze the forced resettlement/deportation in the narratives of Poles and Ukrainians, who between 1944 and 1946 were “repatriated” from former Borderlands to the “recovered lands” or from South-Eastern Poland to the Soviet Ukraine, and in the memory of their descendants. The empirical base of the analysis were interviews conducted during monographic research in two small towns in Poland and in Ukraine, Krzyż and Zhovkva. The text attempts to answer questions of whether the memory of the displacement among the interviewees from these two places has anything in common, what are the reasons of differences, and how the memory of displacement operates among the younger people in the families. Social and individual context of biographical memory were also analyzed.
EN
The paper summarizes the results of ethnological research in the village of Maniowy and Kluszkowce on the the phenomenon of the memory of a place lost through the construction of the Czorsztyn–Niedzica–Sromowce Wyżne Reservoir Complex. The attitude of the displaced community toward its lost territory and the process of its cultural and territorial identity development through remembrance narratives and collective memory are analysed. The article also presents the history of the village flooding due to dam construction and the emerging material forms of the community’s adaptation to the newly settled area.
EN
The article presents the Third Reich's occupant policy in Poland which was characterized by the most extremist actions. A variety of methods was used against all social strata and groups. All of these methods were aimed against the greatest goods of the human being, such as freedom and life. People were condemned to displacement from their homeland, forced to do slave labor, deprived of the bare necessities of existence, forbidden to obtain education or participate in cultural life. Furthermore, imponderable material damages were inflicted.
Bohemistyka
|
2016
|
tom 16
|
nr 1
51 - 64
EN
The process of collectivization and modernization of the Czech and Slovak village, which took place at the turn of the 40th and 50th years of the twentieth century, in official propaganda was presented as a success story. He had to ensure the welfare of the Czechoslovak farmers to teach them modern farming, and also to realize them politically. Propaganda films from this period presents satisfied farmers who voluntarily and with a smile sticking with agricultural cooperatives. However the reality was significantly different from the picture presented to the public. This reality – of persecution, displacements, and very skeptical approach of rural residents to the communist ideologues perpetuated three literary texts, which are the basis of my reflection – these are novel of Ivan Klima Godzina ciszy, Ludvík Vaculík Sekyra and Jiří Hájíček Selský baroko. The date of their establishment is divided over 50 years and this by itself is of great importance – they stand on two poles in terms of distance in time to the events described in them. The aim of the article is therefore an attempt to confront the two images and determine whether over time the vision of those events subject to some transformations and corrections.
EN
All minority groups seek to create their own forms of memory. In the case of the Lemko people past events are among factors that shape their ethnic awareness - memory of those events legitimates the group's existence. However, history is also subjected to various alterations and interpretations. What enters and is recorded in collective memory may therefore be a 'contaminated' version of history. For this reason, the presented analyses do not focus on strictly historical events but are an attempt to diagnose mechanisms of the recording and recalling in memory of certain images or clichés relevant to the experiences of the group as a whole. Among the elements that build the picture of the historical memory of the Lemko people, the author gives priority to territory: mythisized abandoned mountains, monuments and cemeteries; the drama of displacement or the beginning of life in a strange land. The article also deals with the issue of the Lemkos' reflection on their tradition and its role in the life of representatives of different generations.
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