Introduction. During puberty, the young body undergoes transformation not only within the reproductive and hormonal systems, but also significant changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Matured neural connections improve the integration of distant brain regions, the plasticity of neurons increases, and thus specialization of the brain occurs in the performance of specific tasks. During these transformations, both neurons and the accompanying neuroglia are sensitive to all toxic factors, among which ethanol occupies a special place. It causes an increase in the activity of glial cells, which by directing pro-inflammatory cytokines directly contribute to the death of apoptotic neurons. A long-lasting and irreversible impairment of brain function, especially in the hippocampus occurs as a result of alcohol abuse during the period of development. Aim. This paper presents an overview of current knowledge about the effects of alcohol on neuroglia in the developing brain and in adults. Materials and methods. The literature review of the following databases has been conducted: EBSCO, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link. Conclusions. The results of alcohol research have shown that it affects the neurotransmission and fluidity of cell membranes, changing the activity of neurons. By binding to GABA receptor (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA receptor for glutamate), ethanol suppresses brain function. In addition to increased sensitivity and susceptibility to the addictive effects of ethanol, the neurogeneration activity is intensified followed by the induction and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in the first stage disrupt the cortical function hindering logical thinking and disrupting the limbic system, directly affecting the memory and learning processes. Next, the cerebellum is attacked, which results in the impairment of balance and motor coordination, and consequently acts on the brain stem, directly affecting the respiratory and circulatory control centers.