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1
Content available remote The talent of mature women and their legacy for Humanity
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EN
This paper is a compilation of facts about women who shone in their youth either for their research, their works of art, or their social and political activities, and who remained active in their later years, when they became what are commonly called senior citizens. It was during these years that these brilliant women managed to crystallise and consolidate the work they had done all of their life, bringing about changes in scientific, artistic, cultural and social fields, leaving behind a legacy of knowledge for future generations. A small host of women representing different disciplines has been chosen here, and all of these women were active in their later life. Many others who could have been included will not be found, not only because there is not enough space here to mention all of them here, but also because there is a lack of sources dealing with the millions of senior heroines who are anonymous; elderly women who play a vital role in the development of humanity when they pass on knowledge and values; women who remain active in their later years and who only retire the day they die
2
Content available remote National policies for healthy ageing: the maltese experience
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EN
Public policy in Malta is strongly geared towards improving the levels of healthy ageing of present and incoming cohorts of older persons. Ageing policy in Malta follows the European Commission’s document Guiding Principles for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations which underlined how societies must not be solely content with a remarkable increase in life expectancy, but must also strive to extend healthy life years, and then to provide opportunities for physical and mental activities that are adapted to the capacities of older individuals. The government of Malta employs 14 consultant geriatricians who work mainly in the public rehabilitation hospital and residential/nursing homes, concentrating on frail elders, and in specialty clinics – for example, on memory, falls, and continence. This means that there is a consultant geriatrician for every 7,948 persons aged 60-plus, which compares well to other European Union nations such as Germany (7,496), Spain (7,701), United Kingdom (8,871), and Switzerland (9,250). At the same time, the Maltese government has launched the National Strategic Policy for Active Ageing, National Dementia Strategy, and the Minimum Standards for Care Homes in Malta all of which include a range of recommendations that aim to lead older persons towards higher levels of healthy ageing.
3
Content available remote "Aktywne starzenie się" jako paradygmat w polityce społecznej
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EN
The aim of this article is to present determinants, assumptions and perspectives of “active ageing” as the paradigm of the modern social policy. We want to create an outline of the theoretical construction, that has become a signpost of many strategies and programs implemented at local, national and (especially) transnational level.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie uwarunkowań, założeń i perspektyw „aktywnego starzenia się” jako paradygmatu nowoczesnej polityki społecznej. Chodzi tutaj o stworzenie teoretycznego zarysu konstrukcji, która współcześnie stała się drogowskazem wielu strategii i programów działań realizowanych na szczeblu lokalnym, krajowym i (zwłaszcza) ponadnarodowym.
EN
The active ageing concept includes domain of independent, healthy and secure living which includes financial aspects, measured by risk of poverty and material deprivation. The key questions of this paper are: how are the poverty indicators related to each other in the active ageing index?; in what ways are they related to some of the other indicators included in the index (such as employment)? And which countries in Europe are “winners” and which are “losers” in this particular financial aspects based on the Active Ageing Index? Besides of this, the example of sub-national application of active ageing index for Poland was presented with showing relation of these financial indicators in the analysis.
EN
Ageing of the population constitutes a global phenomenon. This process not only means that the number of the elderly people in population increases, but also entails the demographic changes which influence several social-economic mechanisms, including labour market. Combating its adverse consequences on labour market includes actions directed at extending the professional activity of individuals and the increase in employment indicators of persons in immobile working age and it is a significant element of implementing the concept of active ageing. Implementing certain solutions covered by the concept of active ageing, together with the extension of retirement age, is perceived as the remedy on some adverse consequences (especially those concerning the labour market and pension systems) associated with the process of societies’ ageing. Therefore, projects and programmes are passed on EU and national levels, which strives to boost the activity of senior citizens. This article attempts to analyse chosen indicators connected with aims included in the Programme of Solidarity between Generations. Actions to Increase Professional Activity of Persons over 50 (Program solidarność pokoleń. Działania dla zwiększenia aktywności zawodowej osób w wieku 50+), while using the data from the Eurostat’s database and analyses such as Balance of Human Capital (Bilans Kapitału Ludzkiego).
EN
Active ageing is more and more popular concept treated as medicine against expected problems of increasing proportions of the elderly. Active ageing approach has relatively short history because it was started in 1980. In particular intellectual climate. The paper is aimed at indicating genesis of the approach due to analysis how some ways of thinking popular in the second half of the 20thcentury affected the concept. Attention is paid to phenomenology, critical gerontology, neoliberalism, processual approach and future studies.
PL
Koncepcja aktywnego starzenia się staje się coraz bardziej popularna receptą na spodziewane problemy związane ze wzrostem odsetka osób starszych. Jest ona relatywnie świeżej daty, albowiem powstała w latach 1980., w określonym klimacie intelektualnym. Celem artykułu jest wskazanie genezy tego podejścia, poprzez wskazanie najważniejszych nurtów intelektualnych drugiej połowy XX w. oddziałujących na ostateczny kształt koncepcji aktywnego starzenia się. Omówiony został wpływ fenomenologii, gerontologii krytycznej, neoliberalizmu, podejścia procesualnego i zarządzania przyszłością.
EN
Reflecting upon the possibility of value-free policy that is unfettered from any epistemic morals, this article focuses on the overt and covert influences involved in the choice of the Maltese government to hinge ageing policy on activity theory. The influence of activity theory on international and national ageing policies reached unprecedented heights as the World Health Organization, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and European Union all began championing the concept of active ageing as the foundation for ageing policy in their respective member organisations. An Active Ageing Index was also developed to quantify the extent to which older persons can realise their potential for active ageing lifestyles. Malta also supported such a policy ethos and in November 2013 the Maltese government launched the National Strategic Policy for Active Ageing: Malta 2014-2020. While this strategic policy was successful in enabling higher rates of employment, social participation, and independent living amongst persons aged 60-plus, at the same time it overlooked the heterogeneity of older persons in terms of socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, disability. The possibility that active ageing lifestyles are stifled by older persons’ experiences of ageism and age discrimination was also overlooked. It is augured that the second National Strategic Policy for active ageing policy in Malta, targeting the years 2021 - 2027, mitigates against such lacunae by employing a more democratic understanding of activity theory and active ageing ideals.
EN
In this article we make use of preference theory developed by Hakim (2000) in the context of reconciling work and family to cover and explain different patterns of retirement exit paths and retirement satisfaction levels in the Czech Republic. We propose that lifestyle preferences and values may help to explain why some older workers continue to work while others are determined to retire as early as possible. Three types are identified among the 55–65 age group: work oriented, retirement oriented, and adaptive. The data shows that self-perception of the respondent as being active or more rest-oriented is associated with actual labour market activity of the respondent. Different types also perceive and evaluate labour market exit differently, and most importantly they differ in their reaction to various labour market and pension policies and family/partnership conditions. In the discussion we challenge the notion of active ageing as a general “one-size-fits-all” policy and urge that more attention be paid to the role of individual values and preferences when looking at the organisation of latter life roles.
9
Content available remote Význam a obsah prarodičovské role u mladých českých seniorů a seniorek
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In the discourse of active ageing it is assumed that young seniors will hold active roles in public and private life. This article examines grandparenting as an emerging role of young olds in the context of their heterogeneous role sets. Based on an integrated analysis of a survey conducted among people aged 50–70 and qualitative interviews it describes what roles Czech young olds hold and how they position and frame the grandparenting role among their other individual roles. It also describes what activities the performance of the role typically involves. Attention is also devoted to gender differences, which are manifested in the meanings ascribed to the role, and in the type, frequency, and intensity of activities performed. A key issue is found to be the timing of the grandparenting role, when a period of intensive care may be followed by a performative void. From the perspective of gender structure, however, these are asynchronous changes, which makes it possible for a couple to perform their roles in a complementary manner. As some young olds pursue self-development activities indicative of active ageing with and through their grandchildren, alongside the possible duality of active ageing (as a semi-public, socially productive effort) versus grandparenting, it is possible to speak of active ageing through grandparenting, and of grandparenting as a form of active ageing.
EN
This paper considers the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. Active ageing is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age. Ageing occurs in a relational network (the family, society), with a whole range of reciprocal mutual interactions (support, care, etc.). Starting from an operationalization of the relational components (Donati 2011) of the active ageing process, SHARE data were considered, as well as data collected for the Italian survey Non mi ritiro: l’allungamento della vita, una sfida per le generazioni, un’opportunità per la società (“I’m Not Withdrawing: The Lengthening of Life, a Challenge for the Generations, an Opportunity for Society”, 2013–2014, N=900), in which the way Italians and other Europeans face ageing was explored. Finally, the focus was ona sub-sample of older adults active in various relational networks, such as their families (grandparents and caregivers aged 65+ of the older generation) and third-sector organizations. By embracing a relational (intergenerational) lens it was possible to grasp the differentiation that characterizes the ageing process, the transformations and standstills of individuals, as well as different orientations and ideas that facilitate or hinder the path to active ageing.
11
Content available remote Učit se a stárnout aktivně: senioři v mobilních počítačových učebnách
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EN
Active ageing is a challenge which contemporary society has prepared for its elderly. This study attempts to provide answers to the following research questions: how can this be achieved? Which opportunities can be used in pursuing this aim? Is this aim also shared by the elderly? Taking active and vital elderly citizens who learn computers skills in mobile computer labs as an example, this study shows specific features of their learning, conditions under which the elderly learn better, how they manage to cope with the challenges of learning new skills, how this process is influenced by intergenerational contact and learning and finally what benefits this process has had for the elderly and what they appreciate explicitly.
CS
Stárnout aktivně je výzva, s níž se současná společnost obrací na seniory. Jak to ale dělat? Jaké příležitosti k tomu využít? Je to opravdu to, co senioři chtějí? To jsou obecné otázky, kterými je veden tento článek. Na příkladu aktivních a vitálních seniorů, kteří se učí počítačovým dovednostem v tzv. mobilních počítačových učebnách, ukazujeme, jaká jsou specifika jejich učení, za jakých podmínek se učí lépe a snadněji, jak zvládají nároky učení se pro ně novým technologiím, čím k procesům učení přispívá mezigenerační setkávání a mezigenerační přenos, a nakonec také co seniorům učení se práci s PC přineslo, respektive co oni sami na této své vzdělávací aktivitě oceňují.
PL
Równolegle z rozwojem partycypacji społecznej osób starszych powinien postępować proces zwiększania aktywności edukacyjnej tej grupy wiekowej. Tego typu zaangażowanie nie tylko umożliwia poszerzenie wiedzy i nabywanie nowych umiejętności czy kompetencji, ale pozwala również na aktualizację umiejętności i wiedzy już posiadanej, co w sposób szczególny wiąże się ze zdolnością i chęcią do umiejętnego przygotowywania się do emerytury. Aktywność edukacyjna spełnia również niezwykle istotną rolę w tworzeniu więzi społecznych, tym samym jest gwarantem pomyślnego, aktywnego i szczęśliwego przeżywania starości. Uczenie się przez całe życie (szczególnie w grupie wiekowej 50+) jest kluczowym elementem aktywnego starzenia się, ponieważ zapewnia rozwijanie nowych umiejętności do końca kariery zawodowej oraz w czasie emerytury, wspierając w ten sposób funkcje społeczne seniorów i ich dobre samopoczucie. Osiągnięcia edukacyjne osób dorosłych traktowane są jako wskaźnik wiedzy i umiejętności dostępnych w gospodarce. Edukacja wzmacnia także potencjał osób starszych w zakresie aktywnego udziału w życiu społeczeństwa poprzez płatne zatrudnienie, wolontariat, partycypację w życiu obywatelskim i zaradność w samodzielnym życiu. Artykuł prezentuje wybrane wyniki badania zrealizowanego w ramach projektu BALL (Be Active through Lifelong Learning) Erasmus+. Opisano w nim stan przygotowania do emerytury w następujących wymiarach: postrzeganie emerytury i stosunek do niej; stopień przygotowania do emerytury w czterech zasadniczych obszarach: finansów, uczenia się, rozwoju osobistego i aktywnej emerytury; preferowane formy działań przygotowujących do emerytury.
EN
Alongside with the development of social activity of older people, the process of increasing the educational activity of this group should follow. This type of activity makes it possible to not only to broaden knowledge and acquire new skills and competencies, but also to update the skills or knowledge already possessed, which specifically refers to the ability and willingness to take an active and skillful attitude to preparation for retirement. Educational activity plays also an important role in creating social bonds, and thus is crucial to a successful, active and happy life in the old age. As it turns out, the older a person is, the less likely they participate in improving / changing education. For obvious reasons, this applies primarily to formal education. Lifelong learning (especially in the age group 50+) is a key element of active aging, because it enables to develop new skills till the end of a professional career and during retirement, thus promoting social functions of seniors and their well-being. The educational achievements of adults are regarded as an indicator of knowledge and skills available in the economy. Selected results of the survey conducted within the BALL Erasmus + Project will be presented. The degree of preparation to retirement is going to be discussed in the following dimensions: the perception of retirement and attitudes towards it; degree of preparation to retirement in four main areas: finances, learning, personal development and active retirement; preferred forms of action to prepare for retirement.
EN
The paper focuses on the phenomenon of free time or leisure time in retirement, as these phrases are often perceived as equivalents in public discourse in European space. Research shows, however, that in reality, the life of people in retirement is filled with various activities that usually do not have to be classified as leisure activities. In line with the concept of third age as an age of fulfilment, the concept of active or successful ageing and the concept of busy ethics, the paper deals with the way how people obtain different roles when they do not have to, but they still do. The choices or decisions about retirement are undoubtedly influenced by the discussion of the right to leisure, the increasing value of leisure time and the re-evaluation of the value of work in personal and social life, on the one hand, and some pressure to continue to be beneficial to society and active on the other. The author concentrates on how the sketched discussion is reflected by a group of people who, especially in the European environment, are becoming due to the demographic development more and more numerous – the oldest generation in society. They are confronted with two different attitudes at the opposite end of the value spectrum. The empirical basis for the study is qualitative research based on ethnographic interviews with pre-retirement and retired people in nowadays Slovakia, with a specific theme on preparing for retirement and living in retirement, as well as the results of several focus groups with this group of people.
EN
The aim of this article is to introduce volunteering and lifelong learning as activities that have positive impact on senior citizens’ quality of life. First, the author introduces the importance of different types of activities and their benefits for eldery people and the community. Next section in devoted to volunteering among the eldery (particularly the ways to promote this kind of activity in Poland) and University of the Third Age, i.e. an institution whose aim is to educate and stimulate pensioners. The last part of the article presents barriers to activity of senior citizens.
15
Content available remote Wykluczenie starszych osób – na przykładzie rynku pracy i kultury
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EN
The aim of the article is to examine the possibilities and limitations of the implementation of the active ageing program on the example of the labour market and culture. In the case of the labour market, a research question was asked regarding institutional exclusion (retirement) and whether it is possible to observe the readiness of older people to continue employment. In the case of culture, a question was asked about the extent of participation / exclusion of older people in culture. The initial hypothesis was that the institutional exclusion of older people from the labour market should lead to their greater participation in culture, which is an important mechanism of social integration that prevents social exclusion. To obtain answers to the research questions, the desk research method was used, including official statistics, Statistics Poland surveys, and literature on the subject. The analysis of statistical data shows that despite some increase in the number of people working after reaching retirement age in Poland, the level of employment in this age category is still clearly lower than in many OECD countries. Analysis of data on the activity of older people in the field of education and culture showed large diversification especially relative to education, place of residence and status on the labour market. People with low education and living in rural areas are particularly vulnerable to exclusion in this sphere. It can be concluded that the institutional exclusion of older people from the labour market does not lead to a clear shift of their activity to the area of culture. The article formulates a series of recommendations regarding the extension of the employment period of older people as well as changes in the activities of cultural institutions.
16
Content available remote AKTYWNE STARZENIE SIĘ LUDNOŚCI Z PERSPEKTYWY RADY EUROPY
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EN
This paper analyses treaties adopted at the Council of Europe forum, as well as its soft law relating to the promotion of active ageing. The relevant provisions prohibiting discrimination of older persons and promoting intergenerational solidarity, the elderly’s independence, autonomy, participation and self – realisation are analysed. The author concludes, that the Council of Europe has a massive potential to positively affect the laws and policies of its members States in the field of active ageing, but that this is contingent on States’ awareness and political will.
PL
W artykule przeanalizowano traktaty i „miękkie prawo” Rady Europy dotyczące promocji aktywnego starzenia się. Selekcji i zbadaniu podlegały postanowienia zakazujące dyskryminacji i promujące solidarność międzypokoleniową, a także stojące na straży niezależności, autonomii, partycypacji i samorealizacji osób starszych. Autorka konkluduje, że w prawie Rady Europy tkwi ogromny potencjał w zakresie aktywizacji osób starszych. Może ono pozytywnie wpłynąć na ustawodawstwo i politykę jej państw członkowskich, ale jest to uzależnione od ich świadomości i woli politycznej.
EN
The aim of the paper is to present the opinions of Poles on ageing and senior citizens. The main focus is placed on the question of Poles’ attitude towards active ageing, i.e an idea to encourage older people to stay involved as citizens (in various areas, including employment). In order to place mentioned issues in context, the author begins with a review of psychological theories on ageing and its consequences. Next, the results of various public opinion surveys (both nationwide and conducted solely among seniors) on ageing and elderly people are discussed.
EN
Population aging is an objective process that will be unavoidable for the foreseeable future, because demographic changes cannot be quickly reversed. Populations are aging in Poland and other countries, particularly highly urbanised and industrialised ones. As a result, in addition to having to cope with the numerous challenges of globalisation, internationalisation, tertiarisation, informatisation, growth of competition and innovation, as well as changing consumption patterns and customs, organisations also face the effects of aging. Successive types of age management strategies and practices have arisen from how age management has been understood and handled, which shows that organisations develop linearly. Two early types are examples of reactive strategies that emerged in response to the requirements of the business environment. Other strategies, which I refer to in the paper as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation strategies, are proactive. In this paper I classify age-management strategies adopted by Polish employers using an indicator that I designed. The study results demonstrate that while Polish employers differ in how they approach the problem of age and how they manage it in the instrumental and functional sphere, in the institutional sphere they are only somewhat advanced and differentiated. „Soft” age management is a necessary part of a company’s social model, and makes it possible for many stakeholders to benefit. The economic model, on the other hand, seems insufficient, particularly in the long term.
PL
Zjawisko starzenia się społeczeństwa jest procesem mającym obiektywny charakter, jest nieuniknione w dającej się przewidzieć przyszłości, gdyż zmiany demograficzne nie są odwracalne w krótkim czasie. Zjawisko to dotyka Polskę i inne kraje, szczególnie te wysoko zurbanizowane i uprzemysłowione. Obok licznych wyzwań związanych ze sprostaniem procesom takim jak globalizacja, umiędzynarodowienie, tercjalizacja, informatyzacja, wzrost konkurencji czy innowacyjności, zmiany w konsumpcji i obyczajach, organizacje muszą zmierzyć się ze skutkami starzenia. Strategie zarządzania wiekiem przyjęte przez polskich pracodawców zostały w artykule sklasyfikowane z wykorzystaniem wskaźnika zarządzania wiekiem zaprojektowanego przez autorkę badań. Wyniki analiz pokazują, że polskie przedsiębiorstwa jeszcze nie stosują powszechnie zarządzania wiekiem. Zarówno w kontekście postrzegania dojrzałych pracobiorców, jak i stosowanych w praktyce instrumentów zarządzania wiekiem oraz ogólnego „klimatu” są one średnio zaawansowani i zróżnicowani. Zauważalne jest przyjmowanie strategii zarządzania wiekiem I, II i III generacji raczej przez organizacje oparte na wiedzy, natomiast strategie „rozwiązywanie problemu skąpych zasobów” oraz „obniżanie wymogów pracy”, czyli „twarde” zarządzanie wiekiem, wdrażane są raczej przez przedsiębiorstwa tradycyjne.
PL
Uczenie się przez całe życie (LLL), także w wieku przed- i poemerytalnym, będzie odgry-wało coraz istotniejszą rolę w kontekście społecznych, gospodarczych i technologicznych wyzwań najbliższej przyszłości. Problemy te zostały rozpoznane, a LLL uwzględniono w głównych dokumentach strategicznych Polski i UE jako priorytet horyzontalny. Jednak dotychczasowe działania Wspólnoty w tym zakresie były nieskuteczne i nieefektywne. Celem artykułu była analiza rozwoju polityki uczenia się osób starszych i jej uwarunko-wania. Zaprezentowana została diagnoza aktywności edukacyjnej osób starszych w Polsce, indywidualne i systemowe uwarunkowania tej aktywności oraz najważniejsze wyzwania dla rozwoju polityki publicznej.
EN
Lifelong learning (LLL), taking place in pre-retirement and retirement age of the people will play an increasingly important role in the context of social, economic and technologi- cal challenges of the nearest future. These problems have been recognized and LLL was included in the main strategic documents of Poland and the EU as a horizontal priority. However, the previous interventions in this field were ineffective and inefficient. The aim of the article is to analyse the development of the policy aimed at learning of older people. It includes the diagnosis of educational activity of elderly Poles, the individual and systemic conditions of this activity and the most important challenges for the deve- lopment of public policy.
EN
The elderly are currently becoming one of the subjects of a global culture. As a consequence of a substantial increase in the number of individuals belonging to this age-group, the social status of the elderly is constantly growing. This change has resulted in science “re-accustoming” with the issue of the old age, and the culture has been promoting its new and medially attractive quality. This article analyzes the relevance of the stereotypes and prejudices conditioning the quality of life among the elderly. The authors discuss the new challenges resulting from the demographic revolution that is taking place right now. The examples employed here are to facilitate turning the theory of active aging in a friendly environment into practice. Nevertheless, the authors are aware that this change will not be an easy or a swift process.
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