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1
Content available remote Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players
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Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.
EN
Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM) is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events) were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388) and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755). The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277). These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.
EN
Introduction Amputee cyclists with different types of disabilities compete in same category in the Paralympics Games, and para-cycling has the highest risk of injury. This is because the areas used for training are velodromes and highways. The nature of these injuries is closely related to the recovery rate, absence from training, and even the end of a career. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of sports injuries sustained by para-cycling athletes when joining the Indonesia National team.

 Material and methods The sample was a group of 19 athletes (16 males and three females) with a mean age of 30 ± 5.02. A questionnaire consisting of 25 questions was used to obtain data, which was adapted from Nowak’s questionnaire. Data analysis was represented in the form of numbers and percentages, and Fisher's exact test was used to determine the relationship between variables.

 Results The results showed injuries are most common in the lower limbs (57%) by falling (73%). The effects of the athletes’ falls are bruises (42%), twists or sprains (17%), and fractures (17%).

 Conclusions Para-cycling athletes experience the lower extremity injuries. An athletes' fall affects the lower extremities leading to contusion or bruises (on the knee and lower leg, when falling during training), twist or sprain (in the ankle, occurs during a training session), and fracture (caused by a fall during a training session).
EN
A non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is both a serious and very common problem in volleyball. The aim of the study was to determine the association between stick, step-back, and run-back landings after a block and select risk factors of ACL injuries for female professional volleyball players. The research sample involved fourteen female professional volleyball players. Two force plates were used to determine ground reaction forces. Eight infrared cameras were employed to collect the kinematic data. The one-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, where the landing type was the factor, was used for comparing the valgus moment and ground reaction force on the right lower limb. ANOVA showed that the type of landing has a main effect on the valgus moment on the right lower limb (F) = 5.96, p = 0.019df = 1.18, partial ƞ2 = 0.239 and SP = 0.693). Furthermore, it did not show a main effect on the vertical reaction force on the right lower limb ((F)=2.77, p=0.090, df=1.55, partial ƞ2= 0.128 and SP=0.448). The highest valgus moment occurred during the run-back landing. This moment, however, did not have any effect within the first 100 ms after initial contact with the ground, but rather upon the subsequent motion carried out when stepping back off the net. A comparison between a run-back landing and a step-back landing showed relevant higher values of vertical ground reaction forces during the run-back landing.
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Introduction. The high requirements in terms of physical fitness of hockey players may be a factor predisposing to injuries. The purpose of the study was to determine the functional limitations of the locomotor system of children practicing ice hockey. Materials and met hods. 104 children took part in the study, including 16 girls and 88 boys, divided into two groups. The first group consisted of children practicing hockey (n=38). The second group consisted of children who do not practice hockey (n=66). The research tool was the FMS test consisting of seven movement activities graded on a 0 - 3 scale. The Mann - Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between particular groups, and the Wilcoxon’s test was used to evaluate the differences between the sides. The rela tionships between the variables were established based on the rho Spearmann correlation. The minimal statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results. The boys practicing hockey obtained a significantly higher total result than the boys who are not hock ey players (p=0.008). The girls practicing hockey obtained a result close to their peers who do not play hockey. A significant positive correlation was observed between the age of the players and the result obtained in the FMS test in the group of hockey p layers (r=0.77; p<0.001), and between the training experience and the result of the test (r=0.49; p<0.01). Conclusion. The players obtained a significantly statistically higher result in the FMS test, which may indicate a higher level of functional fitness , resulting from a rational training and the acceleration of motor development.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of gender and existing, recurrent low back pain (rLBP) on lower extremity and trunk mechanics, as well as neuromuscular control, during a lift task. Design: A multivariate design was used to examine the effects of gender and group on biomechanical and neuromuscular control variables in randomized symmetric and asymmetric lifting. Methods: 68 Males and females with rLBP and healthy performed symmetric and asymmetric weighted box lifting trials to a 1 meter height table. Results: Lifting style was different between gender and between the rLBP versus healthy groups during a 1m box lifting. A significant two-way interaction effect between gender and group was observed for multifidus muscle activity and knee rotation in asymmetric lifting. Several gender and group main effects were observed in pelvis obliquity, trunk flexion and side flexion, knee abduction angles in symmetric lifting; and in pelvis obliquity and rotation, trunk flexion and side flexion, hip abduction, knee abduction angles, external oblique and internal oblique muscles activity in asymmetric lifting. Conclusions: Females and individuals with rLBP appear to use different lifting styles that emphasize movement at the pelvis accompanied by poor kinematic control features at the hip, trunk and knee. Clinicians should be mindful of these changes when developing prevention and rehabilitation programs aimed at improving trunk control in preparation for lifting tasks during domestic and occupational activities.
EN
Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to postintervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N· NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N· NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6 (p=0.528, p=0.261, and p=0.877, respectively). This study provides evidence that trunk dominant core stability training improves landing kinetics without improving jump height, and may reduce lower extremity injury risk in female athletes.
EN
Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics measures for any participant. Incentives resulted in marked and durable changes in targeted workstation measures. The data suggest that improving worker knowledge about ergonomically correct workstation setup does not necessarily lead to correct workstation setup, and that motivational interventions may be needed to achieve lasting behavior change.
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Introduction Basketball is characterized by high intensity play and a lot of physical contact. Players are required to be well-trained physically in order to be able to face the dynamics, speed and variability of the game and the training loads to which they are exposed. Basketball is a sport that predisposes the athletes to musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to characterize the injuries experienced by young adult male basketball players. Material and methods Young adult male Polish basketball players from various clubs (17±1.4 years; n = 28; 47%) and amateur basketball players (17±1.4 years; n =30; 53%) took part in this study. To assess the injuries of young basketball players, a survey consisting of 28 questions was used. Results The most common injuries were lower limb injuries (54%), of which ankle injuries prevailed (ankle injuries were the most common injuries of all). Upper limb injuries accounted for 36% of all injuries. Of these, subluxations in finger joints occurred most often. Most often, injuries occurred during physical contact with another player (40%). Despite an injury, the players either did not alter the length of their warm-up or they devoted more time to it. In terms of stretching before a training session or a match, differences between players training up to three times a week and players training four or more times per week were statistically significant (χ2 = 8.926, p = 0.012, V = 0.392). Conclusions Basketball is a sport that causes injuries. Basketball players mostly experience lower limb injuries.
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Content available remote The bilateral strength and power asymmetries in untrained boys
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The aim of the study was to identify the level of isokinetic strength and power of lower limbs in 13-year- old untrained boys (n=22, height: 158.5±8.0 cm, mass: 49.1±12.6 kg), to determine bilateral deficit between the limbs in the tests and examine their mutual relationship. Maximum peak muscle torque of knee extensors (PTQ) and flexors (PTH) on dominant (DL) and non-dominant leg (NL) were measured by isokinetic dynamometer. Three types of a vertical jump: countermovement jump with (CMJFA) and without arms (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) were performed on two force platforms. We found the significant effect (p<.01) of independent vari- ables (knee extensors, flexors, AV) and their interaction on PT. AV did not indicate any significant effect on bilat- eral ratio of knee extensors (F4,84=.74, p>.05, ηp2=0.03), however a significant effect of AV was found in knee flexors (F4,84=2.70,p<.05, ηp2=.114). The type of jump had no effect on the difference between force exerted by DL and NL (F1,21=.102, p>.05, ηp2=.01). Bilateral deficit (Q:Q, H:H) did not significantly correlate with bilateral deficit in jumps (p>.05). Despite the possibility of identifying muscle asymmetries in the sense of strength imbalances, their mutual relation- ship with results in isokinetic dynamometry and power jump tests is still unclear.
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Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe factors of possible importance for the occurrence of hand injury from powered wood splitters. Patients. Patients were identified by a computerized patient registry. Information was obtained from hospital records, a written questionnaire and a structured telephone interview. Results. Very few splitters were constructed according to European standards. Twenty-one percent of patients injured with wedge splitters thought that having more than one person at the machine was one cause of the accident. Seventy-nine percent of patients injured with screw splitters stated that glove use was one cause of the accident. Conclusions. The level of safety in wood splitters that cause hand injury is often poor. Having more than one person at the machine during work may contribute to wedge splitter injury. Glove use commonly contributes to screw splitter injury. Prevention should be directed towards unsafe machines and dangerous patterns of use.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the ground reaction force (GRF) patterns between elite and novice players during two types of handball shots, as well as the relationships between throwing performance and the GRF variables. Ball velocity and throwing accuracy were measured during jump shots and 3-step shots performed by 15 elite and 15 novice players. The GRF pattern was recorded for the vertical and the anterior-posterior GRF components (Kistler forceplate type-9281, 750Hz). One-way ANOVA was used for the group differences and the Pearson coefficient for the correlation between throwing performance and GRF variables (SPSS 21.0, p ≤ 0.05). The elite players performed better in both types of shot. Both groups developed consistent and similar GRF patterns, except for the novices’ inconsistent Fz pattern in the 3-step shot. The GRF variables differed significantly between groups in the 3-step shot (p ≤ 0.05). Significant correlations were found only for ball velocity and predominantly for the novice players during the 3-step shot (p ≤ 0.05). The results possibly highlight a shortage in the novice ability to effectively reduce their forward momentum so as to provide a stable base of support for the momentum transfer up the kinetic chain, a situation that may predispose athletes to injury.
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Bike-fitting methods based on knee kinematics have been proposed to determine optimal saddle height. The Holmes method recommends that knee angle be between 25° and 35° when the pedal is at bottom dead centre in static. Other authors advocate knee angle of 30–40° during maximum knee extension while pedalling. Although knee angle would be 5–10° greater at bottom dead centre during pedalling, no study has reported reference values in this condition. The purpose of this study was to compare these three methodologies on knee, hip, and ankle angles and to develop new dynamic reference range at bottom dead centre. Methods: Twenty-six cyclists volunteered for this experiment and performed a pedalling test on their personal road or mountain bike. Knee, hip, and ankle angles were assessed by two-dimensional video analysis. Results: Dynamic knee angle was 8° significantly greater than static knee angle when the pedal was at bottom dead centre. Moreover, dynamic knee angle with the pedal at bottom dead centre was 3° significantly greater than dynamic knee angle during maximum knee extension. The chosen methodology also significantly impacted hip and ankle angles under most conditions. Conclusions: The results allow us to suggest a new range of 33–43° when the pedal is at bottom dead centre during pedalling. Thus, this study defines clearly the different ranges to determine optimal saddle height in cycling according to the condition of measurement. These findings are important for researchers and bike-fitting professionals to avoid saddle height adjustment errors that can affect cyclists’ health and performance.
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Content available Urazowość wśród biegaczy
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Background. The greatest problems excluding professional runners from running seasons for a long time are sport-related injuries. Such traumas also occur in people who are physically active for health purposes and often discourage them from doing sports. Material and methods. The aim of the survey research was to analyse and evaluate the most common injuries in runners. 87 runners were tested. Results. The results showed that the most common injuries in sprinters was biceps and quadriceps femoris muscle tear while in long-distance runners it was stress bone fracture. Conclusions. Prophylaxis and proper regeneration can significantly limit the risk of injury. Runners rarely seek help and support from physiotherapists. The most common methods for physical regeneration are self-massage, massage and sauna. Stretching of the lower limb muscles is usually performed for too short time. Moreover, not all professional runners strengthen their muscles in order to fix muscle imbalance. Another issue that needs improvement is more hours of sleep.
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Wstęp. Największym problemem wyczynowego uprawiania sportu są urazy, które często na długi czas wykluczają zawodnika z sezonu startowego. Wśród osób aktywnych fizycznie w celach zdrowotnych również zdarzają się urazy, które niekiedy zmuszają do zaniechania tej aktywności. Materiał i metody. Celem badań ankietowych była analiza i ocena najczęstszych urazów wśród biegaczy. Badanych było 87 zawodników. Wyniki. Badania wykazały, że najczęstszymi urazami wśród sprinterów były naderwania mięśni dwugłowych i czworogłowych uda, natomiast wśród biegaczy długodystansowych dominowały złamania zmęczeniowe. Wnioski. Profilaktyka oraz przestrzeganie zasad regeneracji mogą znacznie zmniejszyć ryzyko urazów. Biegacze rzadko korzystają z pomocy fizjoterapeutów. Najczęściej stosowanymi sposobami odnowy biologicznej były automasaż i masaż oraz sauna. Rozciąganie mięśni kończyn dolnych trwa zbyt krótko. Ponadto nie wszyscy biegacze wyczynowi wzmacniają wszystkie mięśnie w celu likwidowania dysbalansu mięśniowego. Problemem wymagającym poprawy jest zwiększenie ilości godzin snu biegaczy.
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Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children and adolescents in Poland. In 2009, 1220 children age 0-19 years died as a result of injury. If the rate of injury deaths in Poland could be reduced to the level of the Netherlands, it is estimated that 703 (58%) of these lives could have been saved. The aim of this study was to assess child and adolescent unintentional injury prevention in Poland through national law and policy. The study was based on an examination of law and policies existing and implemented or enforced in Poland which support child safety, including specific injury areas such as road safety, water safety, fall prevention, poisoning prevention, burn and scalds prevention, choking and strangulation prevention. The review of law and policy documents, as well as interviews by phone or e-mail with representatives of government departments was conducted. The questionnaire developed in the frame of the European Project TACTICS (Tools to Address Childhood Trauma, Injury and Children’s Safety) was applied. Each policy and law as a marker for specific injury areas was assessed on 3-points scale. The following scores were obtained for each of the areas of child and adolescent injury prevention in Poland (out of possible 100%): 89% in moped and motor scooter safety, 86% in poisoning prevention, 75% in pedestrian safety, 75% in cycling safety, 75% in water safety and drowning prevention, 64% in burn and scalds prevention, 59% in passenger and driver safety, 59% in choking and strangulation prevention, 50% in fall safety. Child home safety related to prevention of falls, burns and scalds, choking and strangulation has not received the adequate attention. The greatest gains in injury prevention have been made in road safety and poisoning prevention. It is important to both continue these efforts and give equal attention to injuries occurring in and around the home, sport and leisure environments. There is a need to support and fund good practices injury prevention measures based on community level targeting families with low socio-economic status.
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