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EN
Five taxa: Trachelomoas volvocina, T. volvocina var. subglobosa, T. hispida var. hispida, T. obovata, and T. intermedia fo. papillata. were found in puddles in Warszawa and Ko?obrzeg. From among them T. intermedia fo. papillata was for the first time recorded in Poland; while T. obovata and T. volvocina var. subglobosa are rarely recorded in Poland. All of them are briefly described; and accompanied by SEM photographs.
EN
This article presents a study on the impact of missing objects, untypical objects and the impact of displacing coordinates of the object on the results of normalization in the construction of aggregate measures for ranking socio-economic objects. The study was conducted on simulated data sets generated in order to investigate the properties of normalization methods. This article focuses on the standardization formula responsible for moving the set of objects
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Content available remote Content-Based Recommender Systems Taxonomy
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EN
In the era of internet access, recommender systems try to alleviate the difficulty consumers face while trying to find items (e.g. services, products, or information) that better match their needs. To do so, a recommender system selects and proposes (possibly unknown) items that may be of interest to some candidate consumer, by predicting her/his preference for this item. Given the diversity of needs between consumers and the enormous variety of items to be recommended, a large set of approaches have been proposed by the research community. This paper provides a review of the approaches proposed in the entire research area of content-based recommender systems, and not only in one part of it. To facilitate understanding, we provide a categorization of each approach based on the tools and techniques employed, which results to the main contribution of this paper, a content-based recommender systems taxonomy. This way, the reader acquires a quick and complete understanding of this research area. Finally, we provide a comparison of content-based recommender systems according to their ability to efficiently handle well-known drawbacks.
EN
This article is a further one in an unintended series concerning the design of diving technology [1,2,3]. It contains answers to questions raised by readers upon reading previous articles and by users of the systems described therein by way of example. The articles also refer to the discussion held at the annual NATO Working Group meeting on the various types of decompression presented by the Polish side [4,5,6,7]. The previous articles were linked to the acceptance of the results of the project No. DOB-BIO8/О9/О1/2016 carried out under the contract with the NCBiR National Centre for Research and Development entitled “Decompression schedules for MCM/EOD II diving” carried out in 2016-2021. The current article is linked to the new project No. DOB-BIO-12-03-001-2022 implemented under the contract with the NCBiR entitled: “The effects of combat effort and air transport on the safety of combat divers in the execution of underwater combat operations,” scheduled for 2023-2025.
EN
The new species Reticulophragmium vidonioensis Kaminski & Crespo de Cabrera is newly described from the subsurface Vidono Formation of northeastern Venezuela. The foraminiferal assemblage is dated as Zone P3 (mid Paleocene), and represents an outer neritic-upper bathyal biofacies. Reticulophragmium vidonioensis n.sp. displays very primitive morphological features, and illustrates the close evolutionary relationship between the earliest Paleocene alveolar genus Reticulophragmium and the non-alveolar genus Haplophragmoides.
PL
Z osadów środkowego paleocenu (zona P3) formacji Vidono w północno-wschodniej Wenezueli opisano nowy gatunek Reticulophragmium vidonioensis Kaminski & Crespo de Cabrera, należący do grupy otwornic aglutynujących. Zespół otwornic z nowo opisanym taksonem reprezentuje biofacje z pogranicza strefy nerytycznej i górnego batiału. Gatunek Reticulophragmium vidonioensis n.sp. charakteryzują cechy stawiające go jako forme pośrednią pomiędzy rodzajem Reticulophragmium o alweolarnej strukturze i rodzajem Haplophragmoides nie wykazującym w budowie wewnętrznej skorupki struktury alweolarnej.
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Content available remote Bacterial species – from theory to practice
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EN
Although the Mayr’s definition of species is commonly accepted for eukaryotic organisms, bacteria do not meet those established criteria. Thus, a special approach is necessary to elaborate the definition resistant to such limitations as for example the lack of sexual reproduction or horizontal gene transfers. One of the most problematic taxa in microbiology is the Bacillus cereus group composed of several closely related bacteria. Thus, on the basis of this model, doubts concerning bacterial taxonomy are discussed in the light of actual, molecular data.
EN
In the context of taxonomy methods in recent years, a lot of attention is paid to the stability of these methods, i.e. the answer to the question to what extent the structure discovered by a given method is actually present in the data? Many different ways of measuring stability have been proposed in the literature, which are mainly relating to the stability of the final grouping result. Lord et al. (2017) instead proposed a measure of stability for each observation from the data set and the measure of stability for individual groups. In their article, they suggest that an individual measure of stability may indicate noisy observation whereas the stability measure relating to particular groups may indicate clusters of noise which should be removed from the dataset. The aim of the paper is to apply the proposed individual measure of stability and a measure of stability for individual groups to answer the question to what extent Poland is matched the EU in terms of the level of sustainable development.
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The Sinemurian times of the Moroccan Central High Atlas saw important palaeogeographic changes which were of primary importance in the geodynamic evolution of the Atlas Basin. Sedimentation in the subsiding basin was dominated by the hemipelagic, thin bedded sediments of the Aberdouz and Ouchbis formations. The ammonite fauna gives the basis for precise dating of the deposits and recognition of changes of facies along a proximal/distal direction which corresponded to the main breakup of the platform at the turn of Early and Late Sinemurian. This study is concentrated on Sinemurian ammonites of Central High Atlas (Morocco). It refers to four sections namely Bou-Hamid, n’Zala, Tillicht, Foum Zaabel in the High-Atlas of Midelt-Rich and two sections namely Tamadoute, Taguendouf in the High-Atlas of Beni-Mellal. A careful systematic description of 70 taxa belonging to the Phylloceratidae, Juraphyllitidae, Lytoceratidae, Schlotheimiidae, Arietitidae, Echioceratidae, Acanthopleuroceratidae, Oxynoticeratidae, Eoderoceratidae, led to the construction of a detailed biostratigraphical framework for the Sinemurian. Ten horizons were recognized in the Lower Sinemurian (Obtusum Zone) – Upper Sinemurian (Raricostatum Zone) interval up to Lower Carixien (Jamesoni Zone). The bulk of the species show Tethyan paleogeographical affinities and can be correlated with those of the northwestern European standard zonation.
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Content available remote Waiting Nets: State Classes and Taxonomy
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EN
In time Petri nets (TPNs), time and control are tightly connected: time measurement for a transition starts only when all resources needed to fire it are available. Further, upper bounds on duration of enabledness can force transitions to fire (this is called urgency). For many systems, one wants to decouple control and time, i.e. start measuring time as soon as a part of the preset of a transition is filled, and fire it after some delay and when all needed resources are available. This paper considers an extension of TPN called waiting nets that dissociates time measurement and control. Their semantics allows time measurement to start with incomplete presets, and can ignore urgency when upper bounds of intervals are reached but all resources needed to fire are not yet available. Firing of a transition is then allowed as soon as missing resources are available. It is known that extending bounded TPNs with stopwatches leads to undecidability. Our extension is weaker, and we show how to compute a finite state class graph for bounded waiting nets, yielding decidability of reachability and coverability. We then compare expressiveness of waiting nets with that of other models w.r.t. timed language equivalence, and show that they are strictly more expressive than TPNs.
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Content available remote Late Cretaceous nautilids from northern Cantabria, Spain
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EN
Nautilids do not occur throughout the Upper Cretaceous succesion in northern Cantabria. Alrhough relatively rare, they preferentially occur in condensed transgressive horizons. Nine species belonging to the genera Angulithes MONTFORT 1808, Eutrephoceras HYATT 1894, and Pseudocenoceras SPATH 1927 are recorded. A. westphalicus (SCHLUTER 1872) and E. cf. justum (BLANFORD 1861) are reported for the first time from the Iberian Peninsula. The diagnosis of A. vascogoticus WIEDEMANN 1960 is emended. The Cenomanian was characterized by a relative abundance of nautilids of the genus Angulithes which display a major radiative event, evolving relatively short-lived species. This development was probably related to the "Cenomanian transgression". Compared to co-occuring ammonite faunas, Angulithes inhabited deeper and more distal environments. A possible transitional form, connecting the two genera Angulithes and Deltocymatoceras KUMMEL 1956 (?Turonian, Coniacian - Santonian), is recorded from the Mid-/Late Cenomanian. The Turonian to Campanian succession is dominated by long-ranging nautilids of the genus Eutrephoceras.
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In December 2022. Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted the Directive on Corporate Sustainability Reporting EU/2022/2464 . This directive is linked to a number of European Commission regulations enacted between 2019 and 2022, primarily concerning environmental and climate issues. The full implementation of the provisions of these new pieces of legislation into practice, due to their great complexity and voluminosity, appears to be a difficult process and one that requires considerable effort, not only organisational but also financial, from the companies covered. This study aims to present the objectives and goals of Directive EU/2022/2464 and its associated regulations, and to evaluate these legal acts. As a result of these discussion, it has been established that the newly introduced regulatory system for corporate sustainability information meets the current challenges facing the societies and economies of EU member states. The system is extremely complex in terms of the content of its provisions, which makes compliance with the established regulations appear to be a very difficult task. information. It can reduce the risk of investing in questionably sustainable assets or limit unfair competition from surrounding companies. A system of ‘taxonomies’ may also contribute to increasing the transparency of individual markets, which arguably has a positive impact on the cost of preparing investor projects. The introduction of a ‘taxonomy’ into the practice of companies involves an increase in the costs of data collection, processing and disclosure as required by this system. Linked to Directive EU/2022/2464, the ‘taxonomy’ system is one of the key tools for creating a common framework for sustainable investment activities and practices. This system can bring many benefits to investors. Indeed, it can effectively reduce greenwashing by standardising the disclosure of environmental sustainabilit information. It can reduce the risk of investing in questionably sustainable assets or limit unfair competition from surrounding companies. A system of ‘taxonomies’ may also contribute to increasing the transparency of individual markets, which arguably has a positive impact on the cost of preparing investor projects. The introduction of a ‘taxonomy’ into the practice of companies involves an increase in the costs of data collection, processing and disclosure as required by this system.
EN
The location of stomata and the structural details of exostome teeth and endostome segments are among the most important taxonomic features used for identifying Orthotrichum species. Certain species pairs (e.g. O. stramineum vs. O. pallens; O. pumilum vs. O. stellatum) are distinguished based on the presence or absence of hair on the vaginula. The authors have shown that this feature is not always appropriate for species identification. Some specimens of O. affine, O. anomalum or O. speciosum were found to have a hairy vaginula, although this feature is not included in their description. The confusion with species determination was resolved in a subsequent DNA analysis of the specimens. The reliability of this character is briefly discussed in the paper.
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Content available remote A Complete Taxonomy of Restarting Automata without Auxiliary Symbols
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EN
A complete taxonomy is presented for restarting automata without auxiliary symbols. In this taxonomy, the language classes that are accepted by deterministic and nondeterministic, monotone, weakly monotone, and non-monotone, shrinking and length-reducing restarting automata are compared to each other with respect to inclusion. As it turns out, the 45 types of restarting automata considered yield 29 different classes of languages. By presenting a collection of rather simple example languages, it is shown that, for any two of these language classes ℒ1 and ℒ2, the class ℒ1 is a subclass of ℒ2 if and only if ℒ1 is defined by a type of restarting automaton that is a restriction of a type of restarting automaton that defines the class ℒ2.
EN
The article presents a method of solving the problem of the assessment of the exploitation policy. It was assumed that the evaluation of the exploitation policy can and should be carried out with reference to defined universal patterns. This allows comparability of such a policy, as well as making decisions regarding necessary changes. Therefore, there was proposed a way of building pattern models of the exploitation policy and there was carried out the assessment of the exploitation policies of the selected technical network systems, based on the selected taxonomic model.
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Content available remote Analiza rozwoju gospodarczego Ełku w latach 1975-2000
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PL
Streszczenie: Niniejszy artykuł zawiera wnioski z badań, których celem było ustalenie przebiegu procesu rozwoju gospodarczego Ełku w ciągu ostatnich 25 lat XX wieku. Na wstępie pracy opisano odmienne sposoby interpretowania pojęć: rozwój i wzrost gospodarczy. Kolejną część artykułu poświęcono tematyce wyznaczania mierników rozwoju gospodarczego. Przedstawiono charakterystykę metod taksonometrycznych, znajdujących zastosowanie w ekonomii, oraz wymogi metodyczne badań. W artykule zamieszczono również wyniki badań własnych, które poddano szczegółowej analizie, poszerzonej o próbę identyfikacji przyczyn niekorzystnych zmian w ełckiej gospodarce.
EN
This article contains conclusions from research performed in order to describe the process of economic development of Ełk in the last 25 years of the 20th century. The first part of the article stresses various methods of interpreting the terms of "economic development" end "economic growth". The next part is devoted to the problems of defining methods of measuring economic development. A characteristic of the taxonomic methods used in the economics is presented, together with methodological research requirements. In this article are also placed results of own research with a detailed analysis, including a tentative identification of the reasons for unfavorable changes in the industry of Ełk.
EN
Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the Wisłok River) and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400), while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa). In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7) and nutrient rich (eutrophic) waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.
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Content available remote Taxonomy of Polish economy in transition
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EN
In this paper the results of a study of taxonomy of Polish economy in transition, based on the maximum entropy principle and the concept of inverse important coefficients are presented. These methods were applied to Polish input-output tables in different aggregations. Our findings show that the greatest importance is associated with the input coefficients which come from the diagonals of input-output matrices. It can be concluded that structure of most important inputs was even in 1995 still typical for centrally planned economies.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono taksonomię polskiej gospodarki w okresie transformacji. Zaproponowana metodologia, oparta na zasadzie maksymalnej entropii oraz koncepcji wrażliwości współczynników macierzy Leontiewa, została zastosowana do polskich tablic input - output pochodzących z lat 1990 i 1995 w różnych agregacjach: 6x6, 10x10, 14x14 i 24x24. Przedstawione wyniki sugerują, że struktura nakładów była ciągle typowa dla gospodarki centralnie planowanej, nawet w 1995 roku.
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Content available remote A blue-pigmented hasleoid diatom, Haslea sp., from the Adriatic Sea
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EN
We present the first report and description of the pinnate diatom Haslea sp. from the northeastern Adriatic Sea, Croatia, producing a blue pigment. This organism is very similar to the well-known Haslea ostrearia, the first described “blue” diatom producing marennine, i.e. the pigment involved in the greening of oysters, and recently described H. provincialis. However, the Croatian diatom slightly differs from other Haslea species in its morphology and 18S rRNA sequence. The discovery of Haslea sp. from Croatia confirmed the possible existence of more species among the representatives of blue Haslea species, as previously assumed. The discovery of several genetically distinct populations of Haslea ostrearia, new species H. karadagensis, H. provincialis and Haslea sp. from Croatia, suggests that species richness in the group of “blue” diatoms is probably underestimated and still more new blue diatoms remain undiscovered. This also raises questions about previously published reports and observations of Haslea distribution in the Mediterranean Sea whether these organisms really belong to H. ostrearia.
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