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EN
The paper is devoted to the assessment of the phenomenon of convergence between Poland's voivodeships (provinces), with special emphasis on the aspect of agricultural production. The convergence processes were analysed in 1998-2005 on the basis of generation of gross value added in the group of employed persons. The assessment of convergence was made from several points of view, namely, from the point of view of all spheres of production (the national economy overall), of the arrangement agriculture - national economy, of agriculture alone and from the point of view of selected elements characterising the voivodeships. Generally, this assessment has not resulted in any firm conclusions clearly pointing to the existence of convergence although certain tendencies in this respect are observable in the analysed spheres.
EN
The experimental investigation of coordination issues is experiencing an upswing nowadays in macroeconomics. With the help of an experiment set in the New Keynesian framework of N-player pricing game with monopolistic competition and strategic complementarity inspired by Fehr and Tyran (2001), we address the question of coordination favourableness at the aggregate level. The results of our experimental research indicate that the extent to which coordination is favourable might, under nominal pay-off dominance, be accountable for existing nominal inertia at the aggregate level. As a result, the product might stay below its potential for a longer time, since convergence is decelerated through a strengthened channel of strategic complementarity.
EN
The aim of the article is to identify the current trends in the process of convergence of the member states of the EU within the sphere of innovativeness and to trace the directions of European policy supporting innovative development towards securing stable economic growth. The above formulated aim is achieved by presenting arguments for the significance of technical progress and innovation to economic growth from the perspective of the major trends in economic thought. On the basis of such data as the level of innovativeness of European economy, and the size and structure of expenditures on research and development it is possible to verify the thesis that the ensuring of a stable economic growth and obtaining competition advantage by the member states of the EU depends on an increase in expenditure on research and development as well as on the development of systems of education
4
Content available remote URBAN DETERMINANTS OF POLARISATION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN POLAND
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EN
Studies which deal with the reasons for disparities between the levels of regional development are an important part of economics theory. According to the neoclassical approach, all differences are transient and they will gradually diminish, owing to various factors, including perfect mobility of the means of production. On the other hand, according to the theories from New Economic Geography, regional polarisation of economic development is a relatively permanent process and the mechanism of its increase is based on so called agglomeration benefits. Based on this concept, the study assumed that one of the basic reasons for the disparities between the levels of economic development is the diversity of the development of an urban settlement network. In order to verify the hypothesis, sixteen provinces were divided into three groups with different levels of economic development, measured by the value of GDP per capita. Subsequently, the development of urban settlement network was evaluated within such groups by means of such indexes as: urbanisation index, city density index, structure of urban centre by size. The analyses performed have confirmed the assumption. At least partially, economic development of provinces depends on urbanisation processes. However, it means that development disparities between regions are likely to grow in the future.
EN
The aim of this paper is an empirical analysis of the convergence process in the years 1993-2008 and the impact of economic growth on income distribution in selected European Union countries. Considering this fact one can state that research was conducted from the perspective of EU citizens. The crucial hypothesis of this paper is statement that convergence is differently perceived in terms of entire economies, and gives a different picture from the perspective of the single citizen of the selected country. The analysis was carried out in several stages. Initially, the authors referred to the classical convergence hypotheses (unconditional 'beta' and 'sigma' convergence) within the EU-27, then the same assumptions were examined taking into account population - weighted indicators. However, the main aim of research undertaken in this study was to investigate the individual within - country distribution of income for the initial and final period, which allowed to answer the question whether faster growth of the 'new EU' was accompanied by reduction of inequalities within analyzed economic systems.
EN
This paper empirically looks at the growth dynamics of the world economy at large and regional economies during the period 1960 - 2000. The analysis is based on the neoclassical growth framework which goes back to the seminal work of Robert Solow (1956). The results of the regressions from a cross-section of the world economy at large seem to suggest that there was a substantial disparity in the growth dynamics of the world economy during the period under consideration. The results also indicate that this disparity was worst in the 1980s and 1990s, the decades known for intensive development in the process of globalization. One possible explanation therefore is that so far some regional economies have failed to benefit from the process of globalization and moved to wrong growth paths. Nevertheless, globalization alone may not be accountable for the world growth disparity given the complexity of issues when it comes to long-term determinants of economic growth.
EN
Dynamic growth in the household lending market has in recent years increased this market’s importance and has had an influence on the entire economy. The article compares the development of the credit market for households in Poland with both highly developed European countries and those with a level of socioeconomic development on a par with Poland’s. The hypothesis is that European integration affects the credit market and leads, despite historical and cultural differences, to its gradual real convergence. These trends are particularly pronounced among the new EU members. Rapid development of the credit market for households has been accompanied by changes in this market’s structure – loans are increasingly becoming a source of the long-term financing of household consumption. Analysis based on the aggregated data reveals that the volume of loans per capita depends largely on the wealth of households. Clustering done using Ward’s method made it possible to isolate four groups of countries that are similar in terms of the size of their credit market relative to households (measured in relation to GDP) and its structure (the share of housing loans to total retail loans). The increase in the relative size of the credit market in post-socialist countries, after an initial rapid increase in demand for consumer loans, is made possible only by increasing the share of long-term loans on property.
Ekonomista
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2008
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nr 3
329-355
EN
The article contains the results of theoretical and empirical analysis of approaches and hypotheses that concern costs and benefits resulting from Poland's accession to the eurozone. Comparative analysis indicates that the bottom line results of Poland joining the Economic and Currency Union should be - in the longer run - advantageous. The path leading Poland to eurozone seems to be difficult because the country does not meet nominal and real convergence criteria. The fundamental problem is attributable to the need of deep reformulation of structural policy: modernization of state institutions and of the economy, improvements in policy mix are the main points. Poland should be well prepared and 'ripe' to benefit from opportunities ensuing from integration. Voluntary or too early resignation from the ability to conduct own monetary and exchange policies would not safeguard the stability of macroeconomic policy under conditions of contemporary challenges facing the world economy. The article is concluded with the statement that the integration with the monetary union should be desirable and, in the overall account, will bring benefits for Poland.
EN
The process of monetary integration in general is followed by a set of rules. The well known Optimum Currency Area (OCA) criteria are basically structural while official, so called Maastricht criteria for joining Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) are nominal. Many economists agree that nominal convergence itself is not sufficient for monetary union to function successfully and that also a certain level of structural convergence between the member states has to be achieved. In addition, in time of approaching eurozone enlargement the adequacy of Maastricht criteria is questionable. Whereas their modification seems to be politically unfeasible their flexible interpretation taking into account individual needs of the new member states would be desirable.
EN
The aim of this paper is to determine potential factors that may influence export sophistication index for both developed and developing countries. The present study calculated export sophistication values for selected developed and developing countries using a specific index (EXPY) proposed by Hausmann, Hwang and Rodrik (2007). Second-generation panel data analyses were subsequently performed to examine determinants of export sophistication index and whether selected developing countries are able to converge to developed countries. Empirical findings reveal that there exists a positive relationship between export sophistication index and foreign direct investments, total domestic savings, educational and research and development (R&D) expenditures. Particularly, the estimation results of the present study also indicate that two developing countries, namely, Malaysia and Romania are able to converge to developed countries in terms exporting performance, whereas Turkey and Bulgaria cannot achieve to converge to developed countries. As a result, developing countries should concentrate on improving their export sophistication index to converge to developed countries.
EN
The Article presents selected regional disparities of socio-economic development in Poland between 16 voivodeships and 6 macroregions in the period of 1998-2008, focusing on 2008.
EN
This paper empirically looks at the contribution of labour force education to the speed at which relatively poor economies are converging to the income per capita level of richer economies. While there is a bulk of empirical studies in addressing the links between human capital and economic growth, this paper makes an endeavour to use a less frequently used proxy for human capital, i.e. the education of the labour force at various levels and investigates whether we can explain cross-country variation in economic growth with variation in labour force education. Using the data of EU-26 countries in the period (1995 – 2009) and based on a three-period data and five-year interval non-overlapping panel, the paper finds that the labour force education helps countries to grow at a faster rate.
EN
The considerations focus on the dynamism of changes in salary differentiation. The dispersion and growth rate of salaries as well as work efficiency were evaluated following a synthetic theoretical presentation of the foundations of salary differentiation. The analysis illustrates that in Poland the process of divergence of the real economic sphere is occurring. The final part of the article looks at the possibilities for shaping the spatial structure of salaries and work efficiency by using the most important regional policy instruments.
EN
The article is devoted to the evolution of the Polish agricultural sector's structures ahead of Poland's accession to the European Union. The article consists of the following three parts: a general presentation of the European Union's strategy in the context of the organisation's enlargement by new members; a scenario of a strategy for the Polish agricultural sector's accession to EU; the category of convergence in relation to Poland's agricultural sector.
EN
Formation of a single market is one of the main priorities during the integration process of the European Union. For this purpose it was planned to unify tax rules throughout the entire Community. The main question of this paper is whether the European Union has been meeting the objective of single market. It focuses on a question whether the tax systems are converging in the context of tax burden, tax mixes and implicit tax rates. Beta and Sigma convergences are used for meeting the goal of the paper. The results suggest evidence of a convergence in the field of tax burden and implicit tax rates during the analysed period. The results also highlight the fact of a possible influence of EU integration as well as of globalization and tax competition issues.
EN
This paper tries to assess the process of real and nominal convergence of the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic in comparison with the other New Member States (NMS-8) and the EU-25. The methodology is based on the international comparisons of the macroeconomic indicators, especially by the means of GDP per capita indicator calculated in the purchasing power parity and on the alternative indicators of the real gross domestic income, which comprises gains or losses from the terms of the trade changes. Chapter 1 contains the theoretical and the methodological issues relating to this process. Chapter 2 examines the process of catching-up and the changes of economic position in NMS-8 within the framework of EU-25. It also deals with the trade-off between the real and nominal convergence, especially as regards the comparative price levels (CPL). The perspective of the real and the nominal convergence is analysed at the end of the paper.
EN
The Czech Republic and Slovakia before their entrance to the European Union committed to fulfil all conditions necessary for introducing the common European currency. While in a case of the Czech Republic appears as possible term of entrance the country to the Euro-zone year 2012 or even later, in a case of Slovakia is in last months more often discussed about 1st January 2009, whereas it will depend on the level of fulfilment of Maastricht criteria of nominal convergence. Although successful fulfilment of these criteria appears as bottom line for entrancing new country to the Euro-zone, according to many experts, is more important to fulfil real economic convergence criteria. This contribution deals with a process of a real convergence of these two economics.
EN
People usually think about age as an objective data indicated in their official documents. However, there is a subjective side to it: the age we associate to an individual’s life-cycle – youth, middle age, and old age – depends on the social-economic context we live in. At the same time an individuals’ perceptions about age become elements of demographic trends, as individual decisions about major life events are influenced by perceptions about the ideal age of these event, i.e., which age is ideal to move from the parental home, start a relationship, give birth to the first child or retire from work. These very personal decisions are greatly influenced by the expectations or even norms posed by the broader society and the narrower community we live in. Social norms associated with age may also change in accordance with more general developments in medical science, expansion of education or policy areas related, for example, to childcare services or retirement. In our paper we examine perceptions about the lifecycle and timing of life and their respective changes in a European comparison. The analysis will use data from the Timing of Life questionnaire module of the European Social Survey (ESS) and compare data from Round 4 in 2006 and Round 9 in 2018. Our analysis triangulates the perception of the timing of life, demographic characteristics of societies and the policy context. Our analysis found that perceptions about ages associated to the lifecycle and major life events have shifted: in all respects people tend to associate a later age to these. The most prominent changes happened in societies of Central East Europe with regard to ages associated with the ideal and latest age of childbearing. There is a slow but explicit convergence of perceptions about age in post-communist countries in Eastern Europe with more long-time democracies in Western Europe. The changes are fuelled primarily by young people’s significantly different perceptions compared with the middle-aged and elderly. The trend of later ages seen as an ideal for key life events especially that of childbearing, is an important driver of further in the aging of European societies.
EN
In this paper, we have verified the convergence process in the EU in the period 2001 – 2013. The methodology of this paper is similar to that of Artis and Zhang (1997), Boreiko (2003), and Crowley (2013), who also focused on the European convergence process. This paper is based on the thesis that the convergence process is proven if the clusters are gathering in shorter squared Euclidean distances during the time, or, alternatively, if the distances between European Union economies and Germany are shorter. First, in order to perform the cluster analysis, the convergence criteria are identified (the choice of the criteria is based on optimum currency area). Second, with regards to the criteria, we conduct thirteen cluster analyses for every year of the period 2001 – 2013. From this perspective, we focus on the differences between the analyses' outputs during the time. According to our results, it is possible to draw the conclusion that the economic convergence process in the EU was not proven.
EN
The publication The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report encompasses the latest data on the travel and tourism competitiveness. Given that this report is a leading product of the World Economic Forum platform, it serves as a strategic benchmark for future policy implementation. Natural and cultural resources are significant in explaining tourism competitiveness. The empirical study in this paper is based on the two-step process of measuring convergence of tourism competitiveness. The first step illustrates the values of competitiveness of natural and cultural resources for two groups of European countries: the Balkans and Eastern Europe and five high-ranking European countries in the field of cultural tourism. The second part applies the entropy method for measuring convergence of competitiveness of this group of countries. For analysing tourism competitiveness in these two groups of countries, ten indicators were used: five for natural resources and five for cultural resources. The results show that natural and cultural resources are the critical drivers of competitiveness and represent the determinants of tourism performance in the future.
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