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Nowadays, Hepatitis B X interacting protein (HBXIP) is an object of scientists’ interest worldwide. It is a protein with significant involvement in the development of malignant tumors like breast or ovarian cancer. One of the most important functions of HBXIP is the regulation of cell proliferation, which is related to the progression of a cell cycle. Many studies provide the growing number of evidence that HBXIP plays various important roles, including the regulation of a cell cycle through complexes with survivin, belonging to the inhibitors of apoptosis and interactions with transcriptional factors like STAT4, SP1, TFIID or E2F1. It also has the influence on the promotion of tumor angiogenesis thanks to the association with VEGF and FGF8. Another important role of HBXIP is a reprogramming of glucose metabolism to conditions favorable to growing cancerous cells due to regulating the activation of SCO2 and PDHA1. Furthermore, it impacts on the complement-dependent cytotoxicity, also, HBXIP affects on lipid metabolism through disturbing of metabolic pathways of FAS. According to recent studies, HBXIP can be used as a prognostic biomarker in many tumors, including cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma thanks to the high expression of this protein noted exclusively in these tumor tissues. What is even more interesting, it significantly correlates with clinical attributes like metastasis to lymph nodes or grading and in some cases can potentially be used as the indicator of prognosis of treatment effectiveness. The paper is review through main functions of HBXIP and its possible applications.
Content available remote MADS-box genes are involved in floral development and evolution.
MADS-box genes encode transcription factors in all eukaryotic organisms thus far studied. Plant MADS-box proteins contain a DNA-binding (M), an intervening (I), a Keratin-like (K) and a C-terminal C-domain, thus plant MADS-box proteins are of the MIKC type. In higher plants most of the well-characterized genes are involved in floral development. They control the transition from vegetative to generative growth and determine inflorescence meristem identity. They specify floral organ identity as outlined in the ABC model of floral development. Moreover, in Antirrhinum majus the MADS-box gene products DEF/GLO and PLE control cell proliferation in the developing flower bud. In this species the DEF/GLO and the SQUA proteins form a ternary complex which determines the overall "Bauplan" of the flower. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MADS-box sequences obtained from ferns, gymnosperms and higher eudicots reveal that, although ferns possess already MIKC type genes, these are not orthologous to the well characterized MADS-box genes from gymnosperms or angiosperms. Putative orthologs of floral homeotic B- and C-function genes have been identified in different gymnosperms suggesting that these genes evolved some 300-400 million years ago. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms also contain a hitherto unknown sister clade of the B-genes, which we termed Bsister. A novel hypothesis will be described suggesting that B and Bsister might be involved in sex determination of male and female reproductive organs, respectively.
Transcription reinitiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) III proceeds through facilitated recycling, a process by which the terminating Pol III, assisted by the transcription factors TFIIIB and TFIIIC, rapidly reloads onto the same transcription unit. To get further insight into the Pol III transcription mechanism, we analyzed the kinetics of transcription initiation and reinitiation of a simplified in vitro transcription system consisting only of Pol III and template DNA. The data indicates that, in the absence of transcription factors, first-round transcription initiation by Pol III proceeds at a normal rate, while facilitated reinitiation during subsequent cycles is compromised.
Introduction and aim. Paired box 8 (PAX-8) is a specific transcription factor known as a protein product gene that plays an essential role in organogenesis and oncogenesis. The aim of this paper was to discuss structure and function of PAX-8. The aim of this study is to determine the utility of PAX-8 in cytology effusions with metastatic tumor. Material and methods. This article is a review done in regards to discuss the role knowledge on PAX-8 especially in oncogenesis and organogenesis. Analysis of the literature. Current information about PAX-8 is presented. Conclusion. The PAX family of genes plays an important role in the formation of tissues and organs during embryonic development and in maintaining the proper functioning of certain cells after birth.
In this paper transcriptional factor IDA (TFIIIA) has been used as a probe for identity of three-dimensional-structure of eukaryotic 5S rRNAs. I was interested in finding a common motif in plant and Xenopus 5S rRNAs for TFIIIA recognition. I found that the two eukaryotic 5S rRNAs (from wheat germ and lupin seeds) are recognized by X. laevis TFIIIA and the data clearly suggest that these 5S rRNAs have very similar if not identical three-dimensional structures. Also effects of various conditions on stability of these complexes have been studied.
The study of human disorders known as premature aging syndromes may provide insight into the mechanisms of cellular senescence. The main feature of cellular senescence in vitro is cessation of cell proliferation. Down syndrome (DS) and neuronal ceroid-lypofuscinosis (NCL) are clinically characterized by the premature onset of numerous features normally associated with human aging. Phytohemagglu- tinin stimulated lymphocytes derived from DS subjects showed a statistically significant diminished proliferation capacity in comparison with lymphocytes derived from NCL and healthy individuals. We demonstrated, by applying the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, slightly impaired AP-1 DNA binding activity in NCL lymphocytes and strong in DS ones. Our results showed that the same molecular mechanisms of proliferation cessation could exist in fibroblasts characterized by replicative senescence and in lymphocytes derived from individuals with premature aging syndromes (Down).
Aim: The Grainyhead-like 1 (GRHL1) transcription factor is tissue-specific and is very highly expressed in the kidney. In humans the GRHL1 gene is located at the chromosomal position 2p25. A locus conferring increased susceptibility to essential hypertension has been mapped to 2p25 in two independent studies, but the causative gene has never been identified. Furthermore, a statistically significant association has been found between a polymorphism in the GRHL1 gene and heart rate regulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the physiological consequences of Grhl1 loss in a mouse model and ascertain whether Grhl1 may be involved in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. Experimental approach: In our research we employed the Grhl1 "knock-out" mouse strain. We analyzed renal gene expression, blood pressure and heart rate in the Grhl1-null mice in comparison with their "wild-type" littermate controls. Most important results: The expression of many genes is altered in the Grhl1-/- kidneys. Some of these genes have previously been linked to blood pressure regulation. Despite this, the Grhl1-null mice have normal blood pressure and interestingly, increased heart rate. Conclusions: Our work did not discover any new evidence to suggest any involvement of Grhl1 in blood pressure regulation. However, we determined that the loss of Grhl1 influences the regulation of heart rate in a mouse model.
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