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Umění (Art)
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2012
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tom 60
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nr 1
53-62
EN
The article examines the mural paintings in the Smíškovský Chapel in the Church of St Barbara in Kutná Hora to determine the probable origin and training of the unknown artist behind them. The paintings were created between 1488 and 1492 to decorate the burial chapel of Michal of Vrchoviště and they are among the most important painted monuments from late mediaeval Bohemia. They constitute a conceptually sophisticated representation of salvation, in which the central scene is the Crucifixion painted on the east wall. The paintings are the result of an intricate mixture of artistic influences and are evidence of the close ties that existed at that time between society in Kutná Hora and major central European cities. They show reflections of the works of the Early Netherlandish painters and Italianate themes, which may have served as sources of inspiration for the artist, who was probably based in the area of Southern Germany in the 1470s and 1480s, and there is clear evidence of his links to Nuremburg. Based on formal similarities identified in these paintings there are grounds to assume that the artist had some contact with the epigones of Rogier van der Weyden or their works. While it cannot be ruled out that the artist himself spent time in the Southern Netherlands, there is very little evidence of any direct ties to Italy. In the conclusion of the article the author attempts to identify the artist and puts forth two hypotheses that agree with a newly proposed dating for the paintings. The presence of the unknown artist in Kutná Hora coincides with the period during which Master Briccius was working as a stonemason on completing the Church of St Barbara. From this the author concludes that if Master Briccius, who was known in archival records not only as a stonemason, but also a painter, was not himself the creator of the paintings, then the artist could have been one of his immediate associates. Alternatively, the author suggests a North European painter in a group of Italian painters whom archival records indicate were working in Kutná Hora for King Vladislas II at the time the paintings were created.
EN
Sympozjum naukowe: „Oblicze ideologiczne szkoły polskiej w latach 1944 -1956” - Lublin 6 maja 2002 r.
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EN
This paper summarizes the discussion about the origin and the status of Afrikaans. Two schools appear to be opposed to each other: the philological school and a creolistic view. The philological school tried to demonstrate with meticulous research of sources that Afrikaans is a full daughter of 17th century Dutch, which set foot ashore with van Riebeeck in 1652 at the Cape of Good Hope. Linguists who thought of a pattern of creolization in the formation of Afrikaans point to the influence of the languages of slaves brought to South Africa and to the influence of the original inhabitants, the Khoi and the San. This contribution mainly outlines the ideological background of these two schools of thought. For the philological school this is the system of Apartheid, while for the Creolist view the emphasis is more on decolonization.
5
Content available Personalizacja polityki
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EN
It has to be pointed out that in the second half of the 20th century the public discourse was dominated mainly by two phenomena. Namely, to put that notion in short, the change of our culture from a word-centric into image-centric one. As well as the decrease of the importance of the worldview-ideological disputes. The aim of this article is to indicate the effects of these phenomena on the social life. The authors point out to the consequences of the decrease in the role of the intellectual motifs in favour of the growing importance of the emotions when making a political-based decision. Thus, the concentration of the voters’ attention on the personality of the politician, not on his or hers views, achievements or political program. Hence, one may observe the decrease in the role of the political party in the political life at the national level and the diminishment of the inner-party democracy and its direct effect, namely, widely seen growth of demagogy and populism.
EN
The main purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: did the current sociopolitical situation determine the contents of kid’s Płomyczek magazine and if so, how. These questions suggest a hidden agenda of the periodical as a tool of indoctrination. The study was conducted on issues ofPłomyczek from the period of the Second Polish Republic, the Polish People’s Republic and the Third Polish Republic. The research shows similarities between the ideology in the said period and the content of Płomyczek, however indoctrination took place only during the Second Polish Republic and the Polish People’s Republic. Issues from the Third Polish Republic, unlike the earlier ones, criticized current politicians and stimulated reflective thinking.
EN
The text follows a previous article, published in this journal under the title “The rhetoric of power of the rulers of the New Kingdom in the first half of the 18th Dynasty”. The main aim is to conclude the topic and provide an outline for the second half of the 18th Dynasty (about 1400–1300 BC) which represents the peak of the ancient Egyptian foreign policy and particularly diplomacy as one of its tools, as well as the following gradual decline in Egyptian influence in the Near East towards the end of the Dynasty.
EN
In his interdisciplinary work Ideology (1998), Teun A. van Dijk proposes to study ideology as a cognitive, social and linguistic enterprise. Such an integrative approach is assumed to model interfaces between social structure and cognition through discourse. The notion of ideology it presupposes may be described as shared social representations (group self-schemata), which become a group's defining attributes, and govern its ideological expression in discourse. It seems that this approach can be productively applied to a study of ideological relations in the discourses of multicultural societies, such as Britain.In the wake of the London bombings in July 2005, the British rightwing quality weekly the Spectator published a series of articles raising alarming questions about the misguided ideological priorities of modern Britain, and envisioning a deepening crisis of national identity. According to the magazine, the heritage and values of mainstream British society are being endangered by the political promotion of multiculturalism. This in turn has instigated terrorist threats from Islamic extremists, who have been nurtured by the British welfare state and emboldened by its permissive policies. Thus the increasing ideological split between the militancy of the non-integrated Muslim minority in Britain and the decadence of national culture has become the subject of a number of articles. As a result, one of the pervasive discursive mechanisms emerging in the publication has been an ideological confrontation between "us" and "them"The aim of the present study is to survey the pragmatic and rhetorical devices used to construct the image of British society tied in a discursive struggle to define its modern identity-oscillating between the ideals of multiculturalism and the ideology of nationalism. The material for the study is taken from over fifteen articles that come from three subsequent issues of the Spectator published on 16, 23, and 30 July 2005. The methodological framework of the study draws on the research procedures of Critical Discourse Analysis accommodated to the analysis of ideological discourse in the press.
EN
The Serbian writers from recent decades try to investigate aquestion of old age, antagonisms between generations and periodisation of the life stages in contex of social changes in the modern Europe. That article intends to show two very different ways of thinking about that problems and their discoursive background.
BA
U stvaralaštvu savremenih srpskih pisaca teme uzrasta, starosti, antagonizma između gene­racija irazličitih načina periodizacije egzistencije se posmatraju ukontekstu aktuelnih društvenih promena uEvropi. Ovaj članak donosi analizu dva različita načina književnog govora onavede­nim problemima atakođe onjihovom diskurzivnom tlu. Upitanju su savremena poezija Matije Bećkovicia istvaralaštvo Biljane Srbljanović.
EN
The dominant ideology of a society seems to possess the means to infiltrate an individual’s conscience with relative ease. From the perspective of the functions of language, we intend to investigate those fundamental characteristics of the ideological discourse that reify the left-right dichotomy in Romanian politics.
EN
The purpose of this article is to reconstruct a state of the debate ongoing for over a half of the century on the so-called the hidden program. The different theoretical positions are compared and presented – from those who take the hidden program as a central concept and category, to those denying its presence in social sciences. Contentious issues have been outlined, above all in the views of the nature, sources and results of this phenomenon. Vigorous discussions ongoing in the English literature, often having the ideological roots, are used by the author to present the own perspective of the hidden program as an important educational category, but ignored in Polish science, that may become an inspiration for theorists and practitioners and also may become a tool for diagnosis and critique.
EN
The article discusses the relation between lexicography and ideology. It proves that the monolingual Polish language dictionaries are designed according to the ideology of gender and that gender stereotypes can take different forms in dictionaries. The dictionaries not only reflect, but also preserve social and cultural values and rules. The analysis leads to the question, how should the ideology of gender be presented in the future, in order to avoid stereotyping?
EN
This paper analyses two peritexts preceding a Polish version of Bartolomé de Las Casas’ A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, put to press in 1956 and 1988 by two catholic publishing houses, PAX and “W drodze”, respectively. Based on three basic criteria of contrastive analysis, i.e. content, interpretation suggested by their authors and verbal form, the study revealed that both paratexts are marked by the catholic orientation of Mieczysław Żywczyński and Wojciech Giertych, however to a different extent. They are also influenced by the historic moment in which they have been conceived. As far as the form is concerned, they turn out outdated because of some notable obsolete features used in introductions and references, unacceptable these days, but at the same time they keep an interesting historical mark.
EN
This article is an attempt to clarify the situation after the rise of Slovak State. Its politics, ideology and philosophy of nation. It is focused on philosophy of Š. Polakovič and M. Chladný-Hanoš from the perspective of dogmatism and pluralism in their thoughts. The paper analyse 'ideology of slovakian national socialism', which is faced with Christ's nationalism' and ' German national socialism'.
EN
This paper shows the analysis of the Zygmunt Bauman’'s thought in his marxist period (1960s). Article starts with Bauman’'s statement on importance of social sciences and humanities in the building of socialist Poland’'s Peoples Republic. Then author analyzes category of „ideology”, a four main modern ideologies: conservative, liberal, ideology of christianity and communist. Next chapter is focused on the issue of class warfare. This paper contains also general characteristics of terms „alienation” and „commodity fetishism” in Marxian thought. Young Bauman was communist and radical follower of the marxism. In conclusion, author in short underlines, that ideology could be helpful in scientific enterprise, but only, if thinker is consciously choosing ideology and knows its strong and weak sides.
16
Content available remote Ideologia w przyrodzie, ogrodzie i krajobrazie
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EN
The author is attempting to follow the influence of various ideologies on the way nature, gardens and landscape are perceived. She discusses the 17th century, and the relationship of a geometrical garden to French absolutism (Versailles), the influence of the British liberal thought on the idea of a casual garden (J. Addison and the Whigs Party), dependence between the idea of freedom and the way the role of nature was understood in the times of the French Revolution (J.J. Rousseau), The Cult Of Nature (J.W. Goethe, A. Humboldt) and nationalistic and racist motifs in German nature (W.H. Rhiel and the wildlife conservation movement), in the gardens (W.P. Tuckermann, W. Lange) and in the landscape (Bismarck’s monuments and towers) in the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century. The author refers to the connection between eugenics and the idea of garden city and the influence of the German neo-religious movements on the landscape (cemeteries in Seelefeld and Hilligenloh, The Sacred Grove of Saxons Sachsenhein).
17
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EN
The article discusses Piotr Kurpiewski’s book Historia na ekranie Polski Ludowej [History on the screenof Polish People’s Republic]. Kurpiewski uses the concept of the politics of history to show the relationship between Polish postwar films and their political context. He examines the production process of individual films from the moment of their making to the moment(s) of their reception. From this point of view the historical film becomes one of the main ideological instruments, serving to legitimize the then sociopolitical regime.
EN
The paper intends to examine Eric Voegelin’s philosophy of history, distinguishing its several stages. The main thesis of the paper is that Voegelin’s philosophy of history is atypical when compared to the famous representatives of the genus. For Voegelin “meaning of history” is a perverted, ideological concept, obscuring the real relationship between man and history because man cannot grasp its “meaning” from a vantage point. Voegelin attempts to provide history rather as a “web” endowed with a “noumenal depth,” rather than the linear, “historiogenetic” history, subdued to chronology. The main characteristic of history is no longer its chronological structure but its structure of an “experience of an encounter.”
EN
The objective of the article is to analyze the image of the pioneer camp Artek in the Polish reportage of the 1930s–50s in the XX century. At the beginning of the 1930s, only one account about Artek, by Michał Suryc, appeared on the Polish publishing market. From the second half of the 1940s, when the communist Polish authorities began intense Stalinization, the press was enthusiastically reporting the next batch of Polish children spending wonderful and unforgettable moments in the Crimea. The most idealized picture of Artek was created by Marian Brandys in his book Journey to Artek (1953), an ideologized communist fairy-tale.
20
Content available Wobec nicości. Miłosz – dysydent
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EN
Worldwide known poet, Czesław Miłosz, was he a dissident? The idea of ‘dissidency’ usual-ly excludes appreciation. Yet Miłosz, being always in opposition to dominant tendencies, was always acknowledged. The article presents three periods of his life: in Vilnius, in Paris and in America. In catholic and conservative Vilnius he represented a “left¬ wing” orienta-tion. Afterwords when he worked in Polish radio, it caused his transfer to Warsaw. His leftist beliefs explain his work in diplomacy for a new regime. This continued till 1950 when Miłosz, terrified with Stalinism, chose asylum in Paris. He was being fiercely attacked both by conservative emigration and leftist French intellectuals. He was accepted, however, by Parisian Kultura circle – the most creative centre of political reflection. In The Captive Mind – soon acknowledged as the most important book in this matter – Miłosz masterfully diagno-ses “a new faith”. In 1960 Miłosz became a professor in the Department of Slavic Lan-guages and Literatures in Berkeley. It was there that important works analyzing nihilistic crisis of Western civilization and consumerism connected with Americanization were writ-ten: The Land of Ulro (1977), Emperor of the Earth (1977) and especially A View of San Francisco Bay (1988). His reflections concentrate also on ontological crisis and working on new reli-gious imagination. Czesław Miłosz was never a politician or oppositionist in a traditional sense of these terms. Nevertheless, he kept searching for the essence and roots of ideology, the style of life and faith, regarding the fundamental values he fiercely criticized Communism, Ameri-canization and the usurpation of faith by Polish nationalism. He was appreciated, but pro-tests against his burial at Skałka confirm how sharp and influential his observations were.
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