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Mesto a dejiny
tom 12
nr 1
27 – 45
Using the example of Nuremberg, the study follows the attempt to use imperial cities for the purpose of the pope and the Roman Curia to unseat the Utraquist George of Poděbrady from the Bohemian throne and launch a new crusade against the Czechs. It analyses their position as military powers and, to a lesser extent, intelligence centres, and shows the composition of city councils and their efforts to maintain independent political progress.
Charles IV accumulated collections of relics which symbolized his imperial ambitions: as the Holy Roman Emperor, he obtained the imperial crown jewels that he kept – along with a newly created collection of the reliquary treasure of the Bohemian Kingdom – in the Karlštejn castle. This collection, together with the relic collection of the St. Vitus Cathedral, represented his political idea of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. The relic collections were regularly shown to the large public at the Cattle Market (today’s Charles Square) and in the cathedral. The way these collections came about and the public’s interaction with them constitute a medieval form of the museum phenomenon and thus go beyond the contemporary predominant ways of collecting objects of great value and significance as practiced by church treasuries and noble palace treasure chests.
The Bohemian medieval state was composed of two major territories: Bohemia and Moravia from the beginning of the 11th century. Their rather unique relationship went through several stages, during which the character of a united monarchy strengthened on the one side, on the other side both 'lands' (terrae) formed themselves as independent entities with their own territory, their own aristocratic estates and their own internal administration and organization. Whereas a hereditary royal title was attached to Bohemia from the end of the 12th century, Moravia then gradually, although only from the second quarter of the 13th century, consciously formed itself into a margraviate. The linchpin, which welded Bohemia with Moravia together was the King of Bohemia. As the ranks of the ruling Bohemian dynasty dramatically thinned towards the end of the Przemyslid period (from the mid-13th century until 1306), the King of Bohemia became simultaneously the holder of the title Margrave of Moravia.
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