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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, fibrates and thiazolidinediones, are commonly used drugs in the treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. Their targets, PPARα and PPARγ, have also been shown to have a role in the regulation of inflammatory responses linking metabolism and inflammation. In the present study we investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on macrophage activation. In addition to the proinflammatory classical activation, we also focused on interleukin (IL) 4 and 13 -induced alternative activation which is a significant macrophage phenotype in tissue repairing processes and in fibrosing diseases. PPARα agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate as well as PPARγ agonist GW1929 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced classical macrophage activation and production of the characteristic biomarkers of this phenotype, i.e. IL-6 and nitric oxide, in murine J774 macrophages. Remarkably, the PPARα agonists also inhibited IL-4 and IL-13 –induced expression of alternative activation markers arginase-1, fizz1 and mannose receptor 1 whereas the PPARγ agonist GW1929 enhanced their expression in J774 macrophages. The PPARα agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate also attenuated the production of alternative activation markers chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 and plateletderived growth factor in human THP-1 macrophages. The present findings show that PPARα and PPARγ agonists differently regulate classical and alternative macrophage phenotypes. Furthermore, PPARα activation was introduced as a novel concept to down-regulate alternative macrophage activation indicating that PPARα agonists have therapeutic potential in conditions associated with aberrant alternative macrophage activation such as fibrosing diseases.
Objectives: To investigate cardiorespiratory and inflammatory responses in male workers following exposure to welding fumes and airborne particles in actual workplace conditions. Materials and Methods: We measured blood leukocytes and their differential counts, platelet count, hemoglobin, sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, E-selectin, IL-(interleukin)1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and endothelin-1 in blood samples of twenty workers before and after their working day. We also studied peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁), and exhaled nitric oxide (NO). We assessed heart rate variability (HRV) by obtaining 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms. Results: The total blood leukocytes and neutrophils increased after the work shift, whereas IL-1β and E-selectin decreased significantly. There were no tatistically significant changes in exhaled NO, FEV₁, PEF or HRV. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to welding fumes and particles caused a slight, acute inflammatory effect estimated based on the increased values of leukocytes and neutrophils in blood and a decrease in the interleukin 1β and E-selectin values, but no changes in the pulmonary function (exhaled NO, FEV₁, PEF) or HRV during the working day were observed.
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