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EN
In the present article the author examines the question of restriction of liberty in the light of the amended Criminal Code of 2015. In the new Civil Code restriction of liberty has become a means of a flexible response to a crime, making it possible to shape the severity of this penalty in a variety of ways. The amended provisions of the Criminal Code have considerably expanded the scope of its application, making it possible to impose this penalty not only in the case of petty and medium-severity but also serious offences. Restriction of liberty has become a penalty competing with fines and, above all, with suspended custodial sentence, the application of which, under the new provisions, should be considerably limited.
XX
Artykuł dotyczy problematyki związanej z dokonaną w 2018 r. nowelizacją Kodeksu karnego i Kodeksu wykroczeń, która zaostrzyła odpowiedzialność za wykroczenia przeciwko mieniu. Na podstawie nowych przepisów wprowadzona została regulacja, która pozwala połączyć odrębne wykroczenia węzłem jednego czynu i osądzić je jak przestępstwa, jeśli łączna wartość szkody to uzasadnia. Nie jest to jednak czyn ciągły, lecz ciąg wykroczeń. W związku z tym powstały wątpliwości, czy węzłem tym można objąć wykroczenia już prawomocnie osądzone. Ze względu na to, że odpowiedzialność wykroczeniowa nie jest realizowana w postępowaniu karnym, nie zachodzi tu zakaz ne bis in idem, a w konsekwencji można objąć osądzone już wykroczenie węzłem ciągu wykroczeń, a wymierzona za wykroczenie kara podlega zaliczeniu na poczet nowo orzeczonej kary jak za przestępstwo.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The article deals with issues related to the 2018 amendments to the Polish Penal Code and the Polish Code of Petty Offences, which tightened liability for offences against property. On the basis of the new provisions, a regulation was introduced that allows separate offences to be joined by the knot of a single act and tried as crimes if the total value of the damage justifies it. However, this is not a continuous act, but a series of offences. As a result, doubts arose as to whether this knot could cover offences that had already been legally adjudicated. As offence liability is not exercised in criminal proceedings, the prohibition of ne bis in idem does not apply here and, consequently, an already tried offence can be included in a knot of a series of offences and the punishment imposed for the offence is counted towards the newly imposed penalty as for a crime.(original abstract)
XX
W artykule przedstawiono rozważania dotyczące przedawnienia uregulowanego w kodeksie karnym i wskazania jego następstw procesowych. Omówiono istotę i skutki przedawnienia, uzasadnienie przedawnienia oraz ukazano jego związek z polityką kryminalną państwa.
EN
Limitation periods in criminal law are known in most of the modern countries. The only exception remains a culture of common law. The limitation is also found in Polish criminal law. This legal institution was introduced without major controversies already in the first Polish Penal Code from 1932. Next codes from 1969 and 1997 supported this legal institution. What's more, we can even say that the limitation, next to rules governing liability of instigator and facilitator, has become a traditional Polish solution in scope of substantive criminal law. Despite the fact that in recent years there was quite a number of changes to the limitation periods, it is still clear that this legal institution is a very essence and its normative shape has incredible stability as for Polish conditions. For many years, the limitation has remained outside the mainstream interests in the doctrine of criminal law. For the first time the statutory limitation has become the object of a wider interest of the literature, several years after World War II. This was associated with the problem of ending of limitation periods in cases of Nazi crimes. That time resulted in, for example, enactment of the Law of 22 April 1964 on the suspension of limitation periods in relation to the perpetrators of the worst Nazi crimes and what mobilized other countries to adopt a Convention on the Non-Statutory Limitation to War Crimes and Crimes against humanity. Unfortunately, in later years issues associated with the limitation appeared sporadically in the literature, and even if they were already present there, it was generally linked only with the limitation periods. The purpose of this article is to describe the statutory limitation present in the Polish criminal law. The article consists of four parts. The first part contains the preliminary issues, which are supposed to introduce the reader to the above-mentioned theme, in particular to the limitation occurring on the ground of the Polish Constitution from 1997. The second part refers to the nature and consequences of the limitations, which are unique for the criminal law, because the limitation makes impossible to impose a penalty on the offender after a certain period of time. Another part of this work concerns justification of the existence of limitation in criminal law. Although there are many theories on this subject in the science of criminal law, there is no justification of limitation which would be widely accepted. The subject of the last part of the article are criminal-political significance of limitation and its functioning in the practice of judiciary. (original abstract)
XX
Na gruncie polskiej teorii prawa karnego na początku XX w. przedstawicielami kierunku socjologicznego byli m.in. J. Makarewicz, W. Makowski, S. Wróblewski oraz A. Mogilnicki. (...) Temat niniejszego opracowania to: pojęcie kary, jej cel, indywidualizacja, zasady orzekania. Stanowiło to przedmiot zainteresowań Mogilnickiego w ciągu wielu lat pracy naukowej. W związku z dużą ilością materiałów źródłowych niniejsze opracowanie dotyczyć będzie okresu od 1897 r. do 1919 r., kiedy to Mogielnicki został powołany w skład Komisji Kodyfikacyjnej II RP. (fragment tekstu)
EN
The Italian positive and sociological school appeared in criminal law at the end of the 19th century. Those schools appeared as a result of the increase of crime in Europe, which was connected with urbanization and rapid development of industry. The influence of, particularly, sociological school could be seen in Poland at the turn of the 19th century. Among others, J. Makarewicz, W. Makowski, A. Mogilnicki were the representatives of the sociological trend on the ground of the Polish theory of criminal law. Alexander Mogilnicki's views on punishment are, as a whole, included in the sociological trend of the Polish criminal thought. It should be stressed that Mogilnicki was one of the first to introduce the assumptions of the sociological trend into Poland. An individual offender became the centre of consideration. Due to the fact that the rule of the appropriateness of punishment came to the force, Mogilnicki divided offenders into three groups. The first group comprises habitual criminals (criminals from habit). They grow up in the environment where crimes are the ordinary nature of life, while imprisonment teaches them new techniques of committing crimes. However, if this young criminal changed his environment, he could give up committing crimes and start leading an honest life. The second group includes people living in a healthy environment. A criminal offence is an isolated act. They are called episodic criminals. Unlike the previous group, they should not be improved. Obviously, they should be punished because they committed a criminal offence. Their punishment will function as a deterrent that will aim at preventing other people from committing crimes. The third group comprises criminals who cannot be improved by any means. They are professional, incorrigible criminals. Their imprisonment is the only way of preventing them from committing crimes and of deterring them from doing harm to society. They should be isolated as long as they stop being harmful to society. This division of criminals shows the means to decrease the number of crimes, i.e. improvement, deterrent, or elimination of a criminal. The individualization of punishment was strictly connected with its appropriateness. The aim of punishment was not repression but the influence on criminal's personality and his future conduct. The rule of appropriateness of punishment, i.e. deterring a criminal from committing a crime again, should be realized by a particular sentence, taking into consideration, mainly, criminal's personality. A fight against crime should be based on individual prevention. Mogilnicki consequently presented his views on the appropriateness of punishment, stressing the significance of the fact that punishment should be deprived of revenge. The main characteristic feature of all his work is unusual reaction to any deficiency of criminal legislation, to anything that was unjust from his point of view. (original abstract)
EN
The constitutional complainant challenged the constitutionality of a part of a Criminal Code provision that states: “anyone who, in order to achieve a material benefit, prevents or obstructs a public tender, or acts in concert with another entity to the detriment of the owner of property or an entity or institution for which the tender is to be held is liable to imprisonment for up to 3 years”, insofar as it provides for criminal liability for entering into an agreement with another person. The author of the opinion concludes that the statutory regulation challenged by the applicant does not violate the principle of specificity of criminal law provisions. Although the regulation raises certain doubts regarding its interpretation, they do not render the addressees of this provision unable to carry out a rational test of the foreseeability of criminal law consequences of their conduct. The challenged provision is in compliance with the Constitution.
EN
The author assesses a draft amendment, which, in the opinion of its sponsor, assumes an improvement of the substantive and legislative level of the legal acts in question. In the view of the author of the opinion, some of the proposed amendments to the Criminal Code raise doubts and may cause a limitation of the hitherto judicial discretion and penal reaction of the court. Amendments to the statutory definitions set forth in the Criminal Code may also translate into depenalization of certain types of criminal offences. With regard to the amendments to the Code of Criminal Procedure, the author assesses that allowing the appointment of a court-appointed attorney in the application of consensual procedures may improve the actions undertaken in consensual proceedings and ensure that the interests of the suspect are properly represented.
EN
The author analyses the proposed amendments to the Criminal Code. She considers the introduction of the concept of “sexual autonomy” proposed in the bill as unnecessary, due to the existence of the notion of human freedom in the sexual sphere, considered both on a negative and positive level. The bill assumes, inter alia, a change in the statutory features of the crime of rape, which may result in decriminalization of certain cases that are currently covered by the “deception” features in the crime of rape. The author raises substantive doubts about the bill, which in her opinion require further legislative work.
XX
Zasadniczym celem artykułu jest przedstawienie problematyki odnoszącej się do przestępstw o charakterze ekonomicznym popełnianych na terytorium Federacji Rosyjskiej oraz ich unormowania w Kodeksie karnym Federacji Rosyjskiej. (fragment tekstu)
EN
The main aim of this article is to present the issues related to crimes of economic nature, committed on the territory of the Russian Federation. The study showed normalization of these crimes in the Russian Criminal Code and presented information about these crimes for the years 2009-2016, from the materials gathered by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation. (original abstract)
EN
This article attempts to look at selected new phenomena that have the characteristics of violence or are more or less associated with violence. The author presents the main characteristics of flam‑ ing, sexting (including sextortion), exclusion and happy slapping, while attempting to answer the question of which provisions of the Criminal Code they may involve. The problem of other selected phenomena concerning violence and crimes on the network which have recently gained the atten‑ tion of the media and researchers, is indicated.
EN
The author analyses the modifications proposed in the Bill to amend the Criminal Code, consisting, inter alia, in the aggravation of the penalty for the offence of espionage, the addition of new qualified types of that crime, extending the penalty to the stage of preparation, as well as the introduction of the definition of an act of aggression. The amending Bill provides for a number of amendments to the statutes regulating the functioning of the Internal Security Agency, the Foreign Intelligence Agency, the Central Anticorruption Bureau, the Military Counterintelligence Service and the Military Intelligence Service.
EN
The article contains an analysis of the statutory features of the offense of violating the freedom to vote under Article 250 of the Criminal Code and presents postulates de lege ferenda. De lege lata, it is only punishable to influence voters by using force, unlawful threat or by abusing a relationship of dependence. According to the author, the perpetrator‘s actions should have been supplemented with “deceit”. The proposed modification will ensure greater protection of the protected value specified in Article 250, including against the current forms of electoral manipulation, such as the provision of fake news or deep fakes using microtargeting of voters.
EN
In the article, the authors refer to the criterion of generic identity as one of the determinants of the construction of similar offences under the Polish Criminal Code. The construction of similar offences itself is significant from the point of view of certain institutions of criminal law. The authors point to the concepts of understanding generic identity functioning in the doctrine of criminal law and take as a point of reference the judgment of the Court of Appeal in Lublin of 10th March 2021, which stated that the crime of unlawful deprivation of liberty is similar to the crime of rape due to the criterion of generic identity.
EN
Pursuant to the Code of Penal Procedure, any person, upon having learned about the commission of a crime prosecuted ex officio, bears a social obligation to notify a Public Prosecutor or the Police about it. In case of certain crimes that social obligation is transformed into a legal one concerning an immediate notification to law enforcement authorities about the commission, attempt or preparation of any of these crimes. Failure to fulfil the legal obligation to notify law enforcement authorities shall result in committing a crime punishable by up to 3 years’ imprisonment.
EN
The Bill is an attempt to provide state authorities with effective instruments to counteract corruption in public life, but the detailed legislative proposals contained therein may hinder the full implementation of this assumption. Among others the category of corruption offenses was drafted in a selective way, linking the tightening of the punishment policy with the conviction for only some of them. Failure to include some corruption offenses in the Bill will lead to an unjustified privileging of the policy of punishing corrupt practices in certain areas of public and economic life. The author also referred to some of the proposals to introduce employment bans, pointing out that they would be superfluous to the applicable regulations of the Criminal Code, as well as they would lead to consequences which would be difficult to accept from the perspective of seeking a penalty adequate to the committed prohibited act, the real severity of sanctions and the principle of equal punishment.
XX
Wymiar kary łącznej stanowi istotną kwestię, nie tylko dla oskarżonych i skazanych, ale i sędziów, zobowiązanych do obligatoryjnego jej orzekania, gdy zachodzą przesłanki z art. 85 k.k. i następnych. W praktyce występuje naturalna rozbieżność oczekiwań, co do funkcji, jaką instytucja kary łącznej ma pełnić. Dlatego godne uwagi są wszystkie próby odniesienia się do tej problematyki, w szczególności próby nowelizacyjne podejmowane przez ustawodawcę w tym celu, aby usunąć wątpliwości interpretacyjne. Przedmiotem krótkich rozważań uczyniono treść przepisów rozdziału IX Kodeksu karnego z 1997 r., a w szczególności art. 86 k.k. i 89 k.k. oraz wybrane tezy orzecznictwa i piśmiennictwa odnoszące się do tych regulacji, ponieważ przepisy te w ciągu ostatnich miesięcy uległy istotnym znamion. Upływ czasu uprawnia do pierwszych, wstępnych ocen tych zmian. (fragment tekstu)
EN
The dimension of (measurements of) joint punishment presents important problem, for defendants and judges, for its obligatory voting beholden , when premises get with article 85 k.k. So, all attempts of references are notable for this problem, particularly, attempts which have been undergone by legislator in this purpose taken in order to delete numerous interpretation doubts. Content of regulation of chapter IX of Polish penal code, but particularly, article 86 k.k. and 89 k.k. were taken into consideration. Hence, chosen jurisdictions of the Supreme Court and literature concerning this regulation were analysed, as these regulations have important meaning within last months. Passage of time entitles to these first estimates of changes. (original abstract)
XX
W polskim systemie prawnym pojawiło się nowe przestępstwo tzw. stalking. Przestępstwo to definiowane jest jako uporczywe nękanie lub wzbudzanie uzasadnionego okolicznościami poczucia zagrożenia lub istotne naruszenie prywatności innej osoby lub osoby jej najbliższej. Stalking jest zjawiskiem znanym od dawien dawna, lecz w ostatnich latach przybierającym na sile, głównie dzięki rozwojowi techniki i nowych metod komunikacji. Gwałtowne rozprzestrzenianie się zjawiska stalkingu stało się podstawą do usankcjonowania tego czynu zabronionego w polskim kodeksie karnym. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
In Polish legal system you can find a new type of criminal - stalking. This offence is circumscribed as persistent harassment or intimidation. Stalking is also connected with arousing the justifiable by the circumstances feeling of the threat or a significant invasion of another person's privacy (or a person with whom the victim is connected with). Stalking is a well-known phenomenon, however it has grown in strength lately. It is connected with rapid development of technique and the new methods of communication. The rapid spread of this phenomenon became a cause of sanctioning it as a punishable offence in the Polish criminal code. (original abstract)
XX
Autor omawia wzajemne relacje zachodzące pomiędzy przekroczeniem granicy obrony koniecznej pod wpływem strachu lub wzburzenia usprawiedliwionych okolicznościami zamachu a zabójstwem pod wpływem silnego wzburzenia usprawiedliwionego okolicznościami. Autor dochodzi do wniosku, że pojęcie "wzburzenie" użyte w art. 25 § 3 k.k. jest pojęciem o szerszym zakresie znaczeniowym, niż "silne wzburzenie", o którym mowa w art. 148 § 4 k.k. Zdaniem autora na gruncie Kodeksu karnego uzasadniony jest podział na strach i lęk. Strach występuje wtedy, kiedy istnieją realne przyczyny mogące zagrażać nam, naszym najbliższym, znajomym, ojczyźnie. Lęk to niepokój, napięcie psychiczne nieuzasadnione sytuacją. Art. 25 § 3 k.k. dotyczy strachu, a nie lęku. Autor uważa, że art. 25 § 3 k.k. jest sprzeczny z art. 32 Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 2 kwietnia 1997 r., albowiem narusza konstytucyjną zasadę równości wyrażoną w tym przepisie. Autor proponuje wykreślenie art. 25 § 3 z kodeksu karnego, przedstawiając jednocześnie propozycję nowelizacji art. 25 § 2 i 2a kodeksu karnego.(abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The author discusses mutual relations between exceeding of limits of necessary self-defence under the influence of fear or agitation justified by the circumstances of the attack and murder under the influence of strong agitation justified by circumstances. The author concludes that the concept of "agitation" used in art. 25 § 3 Penal Code is a concept with a broader meaning than "strong agitation" referred to in art. 148 § 4 Penal Code. According to the author, the division into "fear" and "anxiety" is justified under the Penal Code. "Fear" occurs when there are real reasons that may threaten us, relatives, friends, homeland. "Anxiety" is disquiet, psychological tension unjustified by the situation. Art. 25 § 3 Penal Code it concerns fear, not anxiety. The author believes that art. 25 § 3 Penal Code is contrary to art. 32 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997, because it violates the constitutional principle of equality expressed in this provision. The author proposes deleting art. 25 § 3 from the Penal Code, presenting at the same time the proposal to amend art. 25 § 2 and 2a of the Penal Code.(original abstract)
19
Content available Propozycja nowelizacji art. 133 Kodeksu karnego
92%
EN
The draft amendment, which is the subject of the reviewed petition, contains an introduction to the indicated provision of the Criminal Code of a new type of a punishable act – the use of terms: Polish death camps, Polish concentration camps, Polish Holocaust, polnische Vernichtungslager, polniche Häuser des Todes and other terms contrary to facts. The author of the opinion claims that the petition cannot be considered justified due to juridical and systemic reasons, as it concerns the matter which is currently already legally regulated. Moreover, cases of falsifying history to the detriment of the State or the Polish Nation, which take place outside of the borders of the Republic of Poland, will remain beyond the sphere of the amendment’s normative influence because of the condition of a dual criminalisation (in Poland and abroad) according to Article 111 para. 1 of the Criminal Code.
XX
W artykule omówiono problem eutanazji w prawie karnym Ukrainy oraz innych państw postradzieckich. Przedstawiono pojęcie eutanazji oraz ukazano potrzebę wyodrębnienia samodzielnego, uprzywilejowanego typu przestępstwa, jakim jest zabójstwo eutanatyczne.
EN
The aim of the paper is the presentation of legal acts concerning euthanasia murder in the criminal law of Ukraine and other post-Soviet countries. The history of the first appearance of euthanasia has been presented in legal records of post-Soviet countries and scientific researches. According to their interpretation, "euthanasia" is "causing the death of a person on their demand under the influence of sympathy and to prevent their suffering". According to the obligatory law of Ukraine, the agreement of the victim does not exclude from the responsibility for the deed. The euthanasia murder does not belong to the group of preferred crimes, and in practice it can be treated as the basic type according to part 1, article 115 of the penal code of Ukraine. Among the post-Soviet countries in the penal codes only Azerbaijan (Article 135), Georgia (Article 110) and Moldavia (Article 148) introduce the independent preferred type of crime for euthanasia murder. What is essential in Ukraine is the need of working out the disputes over the legislative practice of prohibition of euthanasia, the lack of the proper regulations in the penal code and the real medical practice of its latent adherence. Thus, the independent preferred type of crime - euthanasia murder, needs to be isolated from the basic regulation on murder. The suggested norm will help to avoid two dangerous extremes: decriminalisation of euthanasia and identifying it with the ordinary murder. And that means that many subsequent problems with the proper estimation of the deed will be prevented. (original abstract)
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