Aims. This study aimed to investigate CHRNA3 (rs8040868) and PHACTR2 (rs9390123) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk in a Chinese population, and whether the environment affects the genetic polymorphisms. Methods. This case and control study included 500 NSCLC patients and 500 age-matched healthy controls. CHRNA3 (rs8040868) and PHACTR2 (rs9390123) SNPs were genotyped and associated for NSCLC risk by computing the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses with adjustment of age. Results. The minor allele frequency (MAF) of CHRNA3 (rs8040868) and PHACTR2 (rs9390123) was 0.350 (C) and 0.397 (C), respectively. The frequencies of genotype and allele in CHRNA3 (rs8040868) and PHACTR2 (rs9390123) were not significantly different between the cases and controls, or between either of the subgroups. Conclusion. Although rs8040868 and rs9390123 SNPs are not associated with NSCLC risk in Chinese population, the results strongly suggest that geographical agents interact with human genetic polymorphism independent of ethnic background.