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tom 36
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nr 2
15-23
EN
Roman Ingarden devoted many of his philosophical works to the question of purely intentional objects. According to him, works of art are such objects. He investigated their ontological and epistemological aspects. Taking inspiration from his remarks on the cognition of purely intentional objects, and referring to Edmund Husserl's investigations, this paper sketches a general scheme of the cognition of such objects. The cognition of primarily intentional and secondarily intentional objects is described separately.
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Content available remote Mieczysław Wallis: Experience and Value
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EN
These three essays are from a collection of Mieczyslaw Wallis' (1895-1975) papers on aesthetics 'Przezycie i wartosc' (Experience and value; 1968). The first is a summary of Wallis' views on the aesthetic experience, in which, on the one hand, he distinguishes aesthetic experience from other ways of experiencing an object (such as religious or practical) and, on the other hand, he analyzes the general features that aesthetic experience shares with other experiences and considers features characteristic of aesthetic experience alone. The second essay is Wallis' classification of aesthetic objects, which according to his theory are equivalent neither to beautiful objects nor to artworks. The last sets out his position on aesthetic values, and probably constitutes his most important and original contribution to aesthetics.
EN
The author analyses the specific nature of publications dealing with a work (or works) of art, substantive changes that determine their creation — editing and designing — as well as the complex mutual relations that occur in the very construction of the narrative, including its reading and understanding. The commonly used term “catalogue” has been redefined. The contents of art/exhibition catalogues are becoming increasingly rich and are scholarly well prepared; an extensive analysis and a multi-context discussion of the problem in question sometimes even constitute the dominant part of the catalogue, going beyond the function of a commentary to a collection of reproductions. The type of publications discussed here has for some time been the only evidence of the existence of an artistic work/project, its lasting visual representation. Of significance is also the fact of a kind of media adaptation occurring when the original work is translated, interpreted: e.g. through presenting the artistic work/project in a different medium, different scale, colour scheme etc., also in a different context and conditions of reception. There is a need for publications devoted to art to be treated seriously, on an equal footing with other design disciplines, despite the seemingly niche-like nature of such publications. The author of the article stresses the complex communication process as well as problems related to the creation of publications dealing with works of art by editors and designers, which are too often unjustly marginalised. What is needed is interdisciplinary research into these problems. The results of such research could lead to professionalisation of actions of both the sender (editor, publisher) and the intermediary (designer) of the message, and play an important role in the social context.
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Content available remote „Das Lebendige ist schön“. Bemerkungen zu Hegels Kunstauffassung
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EN
The true importance of the role of the interpretation of art in Hegel's later thinking is understandable only now, after the publication of the almost original version of the lectures on aesthetics. This article aims to highlight a usually neglected reading of Hegelian aesthetics, namely its 'Vergangenheitscharakter'. The starting point for this is a thesis of Hegel's: 'What is alive is beautiful, in so far as the soul becomes apparent in it'. It is 'not yet sufficient', yet it is true that in its endless approximation to a spiritually real 'doubling of the Idea' it aims at something indefinite, or, rather, we are, with a work of art, in an unreal place or in a place where things are continuously changeable. The work of art entered into a time of art and history, which requires interpretation, whereby the ever- 'changeable appearance of the Beautiful' is manifested in the work of art itself. Its being alive accepts being threatened only by its conceptual/illusory appearance.
EN
Focusing on the development of Lévinas' conception of art, the article describes the gradual reassessment of his original view, which sees a work of art as an 'eternal' stoppage of time. At a later stage, by contrast, the work of art is conceived as an 'expression' of the desire for the Other, that is, as a reference to the dimension from which diachrony stems, and also as an appeal to the responsibility for the Other. This is poetry, which makes a unanimous reference to the reality of time. Poetry renounces all synchronized objects intended by the consciousness. Poetry is the evocation of the Other, which manifests itself in the face of another person. As a refutation of the expression of objects, poetry points to the 'immemorial past' and 'pure future' of the Other.
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Content available remote Gadamers Hermeneutische Kunstauffassung
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EN
Art is no arbitrary topic in Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics. Rather, it is a fundamental phenomenon, the description of which constitutes an unavoidable task of philosophy. In this article the author seeks to demonstrate the importance of art in philosophical hermeneutics, and in two major steps develops a hermeneutical conception of art. First, the author discusses the concept of the truth of art with special attention to the view that art can be described as the cognition of essence. Second, the ontology of the work of art is analyzed in detail, focusing on Gadamer's basic idea that the work of art becomes accessible, strictly speaking, only in its presentation.
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tom 36
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nr 2
101-114
EN
On several occasions Roman Ingarden accused Hartmann of using his ideas concerning the stratified structure of a work of art. In this paper, thw aurhor shows that the dependence between the two concepts has no genetic character. First of all, Hartmann formulated general solutions about such objects before Ingarden published 'Das literarische Kunstwerk'. Already in the 'Grundzüge einer Metaphysik der Erkenntnis', Hartmann spoke about the two-layer structure of works of art. Secondly, unlike Ingarden, Hartmann argued that the material layer belongs to a work of art. These two arguments show that Ingarden's accusations are unfounded.
EN
The paper, which was originally a talk at a conference in November 1974, is an attempt at a problematization of a tension at the crossroads of the history of literature and the history of ideas. The authoress focuses on demonstrating the antagonism of these disciplines, especially across time. She makes an assumption that a work of art, the source for the history of literature, is the expression of incommunicable reality that it tries to communicate. Any interpretation of a work of art, even a successful one, affirms only itself and shows that the work is beyond the grasp of it. The history of ideas can not be of help in understanding of literature, as the truth inherent in art remains unreachable for ideas. The unit of time in the history of literature is different than in the realm of ideas. The time of ideas is simply the historical time, understood as 'the long duration.' The time of literature is composed of 'events,' 'personalities,' 'works,' especially masterpieces. Besides, as an indispensable feature of literature at the forefront we see the esthetical or artistic organization of the work of art; what is important is the innovation and the point of view of the work, or its idiolect.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2014
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tom 69
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nr 8
666 – 677
EN
The paper examines different philosophical interpretations of a work of art as related to our experience and it´s ability. The first part gives an analysis of the process of interpretation with regard to different approaches to the problem of ontology of art. The paper also tries to answer the question of the limitations of interpretation and its place in our experiencing a work of art. Last, but not least, it is showed, how the interpretation could enhance the limits of our artistic experience.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2013
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tom 68
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nr 7
583 – 594
EN
This paper examines some of the philosophical positions explaining the interpretation of artwork as related to its ontology and the concept of creativity. A theory of interpretation necessarily involves a certain ontological position answering questions such as: What is the object of interpretation?; What is a work of art? One can find the same close relation between a theory of interpretation and the creativity, i.e. the questions such as In what sense (if at all) is a work of art created?; What is created by an artist and what by the observer/reader/listener of a work of art?. Our interpretation and its results depend on answers to these questions. In conclusion the author gives an outline of his own position on the interpretation of a work of art in the context of the creativity and the ontology of the former.
ARS
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2013
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tom 46
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nr 1
86 -93
EN
Considering the impact of Zimmermann's aesthetics on the Wiener Schule der Kunstgeschichte and the influence of Riegl's art history on the 20th century art theory, the relation between philosophical aesthetics and art history is a potent theme. The study focuses on two questions: firstly, what is the place of the aesthetic dimension in Riegl's art history and how does it differ from Zimmermann's aesthetics? Secondly, how did Zimmermann's formalist aesthetic influence Riegl's analysis of the visual work of art?
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nr 5
362 – 374
EN
The paper examines the position of realism in the aesthetics and philosophy of art. It analyses the stereotypes in discussions about the possibility of aesthetic realism and points out to some consequences of these for the ontology of a work of art. Further, it shows the position of realism in the ontological theories of an artwork. Various interpretations of Peircean type-token distinction lead to different solutions of the problem of ontology and identity of a work of art. In the final part, the relationship between philosophy and art is reconsidered. The author suggests a new account of realism, which avoids the current debates stereotypes and is suitable for solving philosophical problems concerning art (e.g. normativity of aesthetic judgements, identity of a work of art, art’s cognitive value).
EN
The essay outlines a non-substantialist ontological conception of the work of art, which should grasp the process-like nature of the works of visual art. This process-like ontological model of the work of art draws on following conceptions: (a) the conception of the work of art as an experience in J. Dewey; (b) the conception of the virtual and actual existences as developed in informatics; (c) the conception of a semantic gesture of Jan Mukarovsky. In this conception the work of art is seen as a product created by the author/authors together with the viewer/viewers, as an experience, which could be shared inter-subjectively. The whole process is controlled by the semantic gesture, which is unique in each work of art, and which is our guide in actual experience.
ARS
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2022
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tom 55
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nr 2
143 - 151
EN
This study offers a discussion about the way how artworks act as communicators of identity of their patrons. It reflects upon the potential interpretations of Donatello’s bronze statue of the David and the ways how it mirrors the religious and civic aspects of the identity of its patrons, the Medici family, in light of the Quattrocento Florentine society. On the example of this statue’s replacement from its supposedly original location – the Palazzo Medici to the Palazzo Vecchio in 1494 – the author argues that spatial/architectural contextualisation of pieces of art and the artworks that surround them play an essential role in the correct interpretation of the ideas they are meant to represent and in the process of communication of their patrons’ identity.
15
Content available remote Aesthetic Supervenience versus Aesthetic Grounding
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nr 2
166-179
EN
The claim that having aesthetic properties supervenes on having non-aesthetic properties has been widely discussed and, in various ways, defended. In this article, I aim to demonstrate that even if it is sometimes true that a supervenience relation holds between aesthetic properties and ‘subvenient’ non-aesthetic ones, it is not the interesting relation in the neighbourhood. As we shall see, a richer, asymmetric, and irreflexive relation is required, and I shall defend the claim that the increasingly popular relation of grounding does amuch better job than supervenience.
EN
Individuality and ideality are the two principles according to which aesthetes yesterday and today interpret art. But individuality must have priority because the systems of ideality, established for instance by Winckelmann and Schiller, produce nothing but lifeless, abstract and uniform figures who represent a concept or the genus. Individuality, on the contrary, is an analogon to nature where everything has its end and sense in itself, and everything must be judged by itself. This is the difference between the figures and works of Shakespeare and those of the idealizing authors. Individuality, however, does not simply mean the imitation of nature; rather it means a well-balanced synthesis of the material and the spiritual in something characteristic. This renders the objection of ugliness invalid, too, because it only pertains to the sensual perception, that is the beginning of perception. Those identifying the beautiful with the ideal are also at risk of insisting on objects which in the course of time lose their novelty and power. The study by the Hungarian aesthete and literary critic Janos Erdelyi, written in 1847, is an important attempt to enforce the principle 'life as it is' in the philosophy of art.
ARS
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2010
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tom 43
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nr 1
119-126
EN
The paper examines why Jan Bialostocki found interest in the work of Georg Kubler, especially in his book: The Shape of Time. Remarks on the History of Things (New Haven - London 1962), which begins and ends with an attack on iconology. The Polish art historian reviewed and then cited it a great deal. His conception was to have constituted a reply to the crisis of the concept of style, and above all, an attempt to overcome the paradigm of stylistic unity of periods and the single-file march of styles throughout history.
PL
A discourse concerns the subject “appearing in being”, discussed with the example of the process of building works of art. The axis and tool for the proposed model of narration is touch, understood in a literal way (the rela- tion between senses and reality) and metaphorical (the mind constructing and processing concepts), which constitute a primary cognitive instrument for a human, and especially an artist of fine arts. Based on chosen philo- sophical concepts (E. Husserl and Aristotle), aesthetics (Juhani Pallasmaa), art history and one’s own creative experience, it will present a privileged position of fine arts towards different sciences, as a field allowing success- ful undertaking of complex concepts at the point of ideas of matter and perception.
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