Tachykinins (TK) are family of peptides including substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) that have been found in the nerves of the gastrointestinal tract and proposed to act as neurotransmitters to affect the motor, secretory and circulatory functions of the gut, but little is known about their action on the pancreas. In this study three series of tests were carried out to determine the action of SP, SK and NK on pancreatic secretion in conScious dogs and amylase release from the dispersed rat pancreatic acini and to correlate the alterations in pancreatic secretory and circulatory effects of TK in anesthetized dogs. SP, SK and NK infused i. v. in graded doses (0.12-1.0 µg/kg per h) in conscious dogs stimulated pancreatic protein outputs reaching, respectively, 38% and 23% of the maximal response to CCK (40 pmol/kg per h). HCO₃ outputs were also significantly increased but the highest response did not exceed about 5% of secretin (328 pmol/kg per h) maximum. Cholinergic blockade by atropine abolished the pancreatic responses to tachykinins. When added at various concentrations (10⁻¹¹ -10⁻⁷ M) to the incubation medium of rat dispersed pancreatic acini, SK, SP and NK increased in concentration-dependent manner the release of amylase from the resting pancreatic acini and augmented the enzyme release induced by CCK-8 and by urecholine. In anesthetized dogs infused with a background dose of secretin (82 pmol/kg per h), addition of SP, SK and NK caused an immediate and dose-dependent increase in the pancreatic blood flow, oxygen consumption and pancreatic secretion accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease in arterial blood pressure. This study shows that TK are potent pancreatic circulatory stimulants and moderate secretagogues both in vivo and in vitro, acting, at least in part, via cholinergic pathway.