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EN
The paper presents ecclesial spirituality in opposition to anthropological threats brought about by utilitarianism and consumerism. It shows ecclesial spirituality from the angle of its (paradoxically) vertical fundament, derived from the “faith in the event” (Jean Daniélou) of the eternity plunging into the earthly sphere. It provokes the contemporary culture, contesting some of its canons. It also protects man against the expansion of those social trends which, reducing the status of a human person, answer its “desire for happiness” with offers such as: purchase, use and “letting off steam.” Utilitarianism and consumerism are animated by a spirit directed horizontally, leading man towards goods that are material, financial, ludic or prestige-oriented, characterized by short-term, “seasonal” usefulness. They do not bring the purchasers long-lasting satisfaction (of possessing and consuming), instead they raise “self-digesting passion,” which enforces a style of constant purchasing “something new” (fashionable today) and getting rid of “the old” (the previous season).Spirituality open to transcendence, based on evangelical vision of man and humanity faces the necessity of preserving its own identity from being contaminated by the “spirit of the times,” and of promoting anthropology in which man, multiplying goods (work, creativity, economics) uses them decently and honestly (ethical norms), preserving the ability to delay (“not now”) the experience of happiness and persistent (with faith) reaching for eternal perspectives.
EN
In modern society one of the basic goals of human life is to continually make and spend money. Young consumers, as people brought up under the conditions of this process formed their own market behavior and determined a certain lifestyle. In this article, the author presents the relationship between the current life styles in contemporary society and the behaviour of young people in the market. Observation of the behaviour of the older generation by the representatives of the Y generation and the changes taking place on the market as a result of globalization have resulted in the formation of two different directions in the patterns of the consumption of young people. It can be observed that there are selfi sh consumers on the one hand and altruistic consumers on the other hand, who behave according to assumptions of sustainable consumption. This study focuses on the presentation of the second type of young consumers. They were indicated for their subgroups and assigned to appropriate consumer trends and to the lifestyle related to their behaviour.
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Content available „Mortal Kombat", czyli jak uratować świat
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EN
The paper analyses interrelations between different constituents of the Mortal Kombat entertainment system. The author points out those specific features of movie adaptations that are necessitated by the characteristic of the original games (lack of meaningful plot being one of them). In the last part of the paper the author interprets the Mortal Kombat entertainment system as a training exercise for contemporary consumerist lifestyle.
EN
This article presents a number of significant issues pertaining to how fashion consumers function in the field of ethical fashion. It is based on Polish and foreign literature of the subject and the findings of earlier qualitative studies – FGI, discourse analysis, and quantitative studies – the standardized interview questionnaire. Part one provides a discussion on the contemporary trends in consumer behaviour that fall within the spheres of anticonsumerism and deconsumption. Part two is based on the findings of a qualitative study conducted within the National Science Centre grant project, which explored how Polish fashion consumers perceive ethical fashion in the light of interdisciplinary fashion studies. Discourse analysis is also used to explore the sphere of fashion in Poland. For analysis purposes, respondents’ statements were categorized according to certain strategies, which are indicative of their consumer behaviours in the context of ethical fashion.
PL
Artykuł jest skróconą wersją referatu wygłoszonego 29 września 2017 roku podczas konferencji zatytułowanej „Społeczne i polityczne aspekty sytuacji kulturowej i językowej świata w okresie globalizacji. Co zostało po dziele Ludwika Zamenhofa?” zorganizowanej przez Instytut Socjologii Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku.
EN
Globalisation is a multidimensional phenomenon, which applies to all aspects of social life, especially economy, politics, demographics, technology, and culture in the broad sense, including language as its constitutive component. According to experts on the topic, globalisation in the socio-cultural dimension results from the spread of mass tourism, increased migration, commercialisation of cultural products, and the spread of consumerism. The borrowing of words and meanings which could be observed at the turn of the 20th and 21st century are testament to the susceptibility of Polish to Anglo-American influence, especially with regard to international vocabulary. Borrowings from English are now commonplace. They can be found in all areas of life, from the everyday and mundane to highly specialised. Opponents of globalisation see the ubiquity of English as the main threat to modern Polish. However, we have seen periods of heavy borrowing from Latin, German, or French. These borrowings did not disturb the structure of Polish. In the 21st century borrowings from English are quickly absorbed into Polish and adapted to Polish inflexion. They become part of the language without disturbing its structure [J. Miodek].
EN
Globalization and commercialization of higher education systems and social acceleration causes the changes in an academic career. Some policymakers and scholars perceive the neoliberal transformation and commercialization of higher education as a necessity and advantage, while the others, especially from the humanities and social sciences, recognize them as disruptions of a traditional university system. I would like to make an attempt to reconstruct the discussion of the Western scholars on neoliberal changes in academia. Moreover, I will point out the main dilemmas and controversies which occurred in the professional practice of scholars that include: the balance and disproportions between teaching and research; ‘publish or perish’ syndrome, specialization and fragmentation of knowledge and science; maintaining quality and dealing with bureaucracy in higher education system.
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Content available Determinanty współczesnego konsumpcjonizmu
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EN
Consumerism of the XXI century consists in the fact that people consume material goods and services that are not supported by actual needs. It is an element of “material” side of thinking, actions of managers, entrepreneurs, which contributed to the threat of global biosphere and the survival of humanity. Excessive consumption generates waste of goods, natural resources and human labor. Additionally there is overproduction and environmental degradation. This results in the need for the development of sustainable consumption and an impact of consumers in shaping the behavior of entrepreneurs in the context of sustainable development. The aim of the author is to show the disparities that have emerged between the sustainable consumer and traditional one and to identify what influences consumerism. The object of the research is a modern consumer − a recipient of goods and services that are offered by companies on the market. This article is a result of a thorough library query clarifying the issue of today’s consumers and their market behavior
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Content available remote Miasto w reżimie konsumpcji
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EN
The article attempts to draw a picture of the modern city from the perspective of consumerism, and with special reference to the processes of ghettoization. European cities were once alive with bustling streets and beautiful recreational areas such as piazzas, parks and public greens. Nowadays, the urban space, almost entirely dominated by the consumer market and subjected to opportunist policies, has lost the delicate balance between the public and the private, between the need to change and the necessity to preserve and protect. The spatial and the social structures of modern cities drift ever further and further apart. On the other hand, Polish urban planning, after many decades of forced isolation, suffers from what could be called a „latecomer syndrome”, which manifests itself in random decision-making and a tendency to imitate blindly certain recent trends in urban architecture. These artificial attempts to accelerate time, however, destroy continuity and hinder the growth of individual identity. Poland still needs to confront the issues the West has tackled long ago, to devise the means to preserve urban landscapes and to reshape the relationship with the constructed environment in a more balanced manner. The drive to release past tensions and to liberalize urban space laws has swung the pendulum of history too far back towards a laissez-faire approach to urban planning.
PL
The aim of this article is to answer the question as to how to make a child reader interested in and focusing attention on reading. According to Jerzy Cieślikowski and many other researchers, children’s literature has its own rules, poetics of genres, and specific communications circuit: publishing houses, the market, the press, and criticism. Dorota Masłowska employed the form of a literary fairy tale to reach out to a young audience. Usingthe conventions of this genre, she described one of the most painful problems of modern times – excessive consumerism, in which modern man completely loses himself.
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Content available KONSUMERYZM W STANACH ZJEDNOCZONYCH AMERYKI
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EN
The article is based on an analysis of legal acts, documents and literature. Its purpose is to present the development of consumerism in the United States in four historic eras. The idea of consumers’ laws has been developed with particular stress on the president’s J.F. Kennedy speech of 15th March 1962 – Special Message to the Congress on Protecting the Consumer Interest. For the first time in the history, four consumers’ rights were named: the right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose and the right to be heard. Therefore United States are commonly recognized as the predecessor of the idea of consumerism.
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Over the last decades, a trend of population aging has been observed in Poland and across the world. It is a result of extended lifespan, increased quality of life and higher standards of health care. The gradually growing group of the elderly in Poland results in a steadily increasing significance of this consumer market. Services, in particular e-services, may play a pivotal role in the life of the elderly, helping them to better function in the society and satisfy their basic and higher needs. As a results, the group of consumers in question must move from traditional solutions to modern technologies e-services are based on. The objective of the study is to identify the behavior of the elderly (over 60 years old) in the Polish market of e-services. The study is based on secondary resource analysis, questionnaires and the CAWI method. The sample was randomly selected from the panel of users (n = 508). The results of the authors’ own study suggest that the commonly used services are e-trading and e-banking, meant satisfy daily needs more easily. The indicated benefits were, e.g., comfort, saved time and money, easier access to services
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The paper reveals attitudes of Lithuanian largest cities inhabitants towards housing with respect to consumerism expression. Consumerism is understood as a human desire, intention, and willingness to consume. In the case of consumerism – desire and intention to consume is of crucial importance, because it is based on an assumption that not an actual consumption power and actual consumption in general but an orientation towards consumption constitutes consumerism. Thus all men have a certain degree of consumerism (as consumer culture prevails in modern societies) but humans differ in the intensity / strength of consumerism expression. The expression of consumerism is taken as an analytical instrument to deal with the attitudes towards housing. Consumerism operationalization is based on consumer culture features – materialistic values, symbolism, commodification, power to consume, well-being and good life. The survey carried out in 2011 and repeated in 2016 brings us an empirical evidence that the attitudes towards housing differ with respect to the expression of consumerism. The fact that features of consumer culture exist in Lithuania enables us to make an assumption that consumerism is recognized in other social contexts in Lithuania.
PL
Globalization and commercialization of higher education systems and social acceleration causes the changes in an academic career. Some policymakers and scholars perceive the neoliberal transformation and commercialization of higher education as a necessity and advantage, while the others, especially from the humanities and social sciences, recognize them as disruptions of a traditional university system. I would like to make an attempt to reconstruct the discussion of the Western scholars on neoliberal changes in academia. Moreover, I will point out the main dilemmas and controversies which occurred in the professional practice of scholars that include: the balance and disproportions between teaching and research; ‘publish or perish’ syndrome, specialization and fragmentation of knowledge and science; maintaining quality and dealing with bureaucracy in higher education system.
EN
There is a constant debate in the modern literature about the meaning of the individual and social factors influencing an individual identity. The identity is most often displayed as a construct of a dynamical process of social interaction consisted of various factors that describe the individual psychophysical characteristics of an individual and factors, which stand as an effect of a socialization process. Presented in this article overview of the theories explain the meaning of both the personal and social factors and the relationship with the socio-cultural environment influencing the development of intellectually disabled identity.
EN
Year 2017 marked the 25th anniversary of the bull Totus Tuus Poloniae populus promulgated on 25 March 1992, with which John Paul II reorganized the administrative structure of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland. The document sanctioned the elevation of 14 new dioceses in Poland. The 25th an-niversary, like any other for that matter, is urging us to carefully evaluate the past years, as well as to ask questions about the near future of the Polish Church. To better understand changes that have taken place in that period of time, let us imagine the average 25-year-old boy and the average girl of the same age: who are they, how do they live, what do they do? Most probably, they are still students, they work or are looking for a job. They may have a wife, a husband, or a partner with whom they live together without marriage, despite their being Catholics who had Religious Education as a mandatory sub-ject starting (as required in accordance with the instruction of Ministry of Na-tional Education issued on 30 August 1990) in the first grade of primary school. There is a substantial probability that these average young people have emigrated and having found abroad better job and better perspectives do not want to come back. Perhaps they are very religious and live out their faith and their national affinity consciously. It is probable that such people tell us more than official statistics does about directions and trends, values and priorities that are recognisable and prevailing in Polish society and the Polish Church. 25-year anniversary cannot only be the occasion for celebrating, it should also become an opportunity to seriously reflect on the past and on the challenges of the future. In the context of the anniversary of the reorganization of Polish dio-ceses we should ask ourselves some important questions: how to resist the negative aspects of the digital revolution? How it can be showed that a good and happy life should be built not on egoistic impressions, but on clear moral norms that delineate the categories of good and evil? How is Christian ethos to be sustained in the modern era, whereas preservation of clearly defined models and principles is impeded by consumptionist logic that entails the illusion of achieving satisfaction through „devouring the world”?
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Content available remote Tacky “Shakespeares” in Japan
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EN
There is no doubt that Shakespeare is “the flagship commodity” in the globalized cultural market. The fact that his works are being studied, performed, and admired, or, adapted and parodied almost all over the world, would surely testify that his works are great sources to be capitalized on (both culturally and materially) in the consumerist society in which we live. However, it could be also argued that the brand logo, “Shakespeare,” no longer holds such a privileged status, that it is merely one of numerous cultural artifacts that can be used and recycled, and that one of the few convenient things about “Shakespeare” is that it can be reproduced, copied, and parodied without the need for any royalty payments being made? Some popular, global, tacky “shakespeares” seek to destabilize the presupposed notion that “Shakespeare” is the dominant, central, hegemonic icon by juxtaposing “Shakespeare” with other artifacts, which are presumed to be of minimal capitalist and cultural value. This article attempts to illustrate how (in)significant or (un)influential Shakespeare, as a residual socio-cultural icon, can be. Tackyfying “Shakespeares” can, however, also be a means to proliferate the Bard. Japanese pop “Shakespeares,” proudly and assertively tacky, offer tributes to the great Bard.
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Content available Wolontariat - motywy działania
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EN
The main issue I take in this article is to find the answer to this question: why some members of our society (society, who is addicted to consumerism) are able to help another selflessly? Who are they, what motivates them? Why in the world, where the most important thing is the pursuit of wealth, there is a large group of people, who finds time for reflection and selfless help? Perhaps there are some personality traits, catholic ethics or socialization, which teach us empathy? It could be a lot of reasons why people decide to be a volunteer. I am going to find the common features, which connect those people.
EN
Contemporary society is living in times of signifi cant cultural changes, which is a consequence of technological development, globalization and social awareness. Distributed by mass media and producers consumerist lifestyle are no longer attractive to society. The result is an attempt to find an alternative. The gradual transformation of value systems often leads to choices that correspond to the concept of sustainable development. Society (community), cultural (spiritual) and ecological integration is realized by intentional communities. The most popular types of such housing community are ecovillages, and cohousings. Choosing the location and form of residence is a decision that affects the quality and style of life. Rebuilding your own lifestyle in line with the idea of sustainable development is a very difficult transition. The easiest way for society is submission to consumerism. This means that an in-depth analysis of own needs is required and often resignation of the desires, comforts and other amenities that are preferred over the common good. The importance of the problem is emphasized by the increasing demands of society that sustainable development is not a choice and a necessity leading to an improvement in the quality of life of present and future generations. The article attempts to present a new approach to sustainable development as an alternative to the consumerist lifestyle, in addition to identifying the types of intentional communities and assessing their development prospects.
EN
The paper presents contemporary discussion about consumerism in academia. Commercialization of higher education is widely discussed among scholars. Some of them condemn the commodi cation of higher education as well as the neoliberal approach. The others perceive the market orientation in HE as the necessity and the next step in this area development. The orientation on students as a customer is widely discussed in the literature. The author of this paper reconstructs and analyses selected problems of commercialization and consumerism in academia, including the relationship between the tutor and the student replaced by the producer- consumer relationship, grades in ation, student satisfaction and infantilization of education. Moreover, the author of the paper makes attempt to analyze di erent approaches towards consumerism in academia and presents a contrasting orientation towards problem in question.
EN
The contemporary „homo consumens” does not want to accept that his ontic status is still best defined by the words „homo patiens”. Today’s attempts to eliminate suffering through constantly stimulated consumption may be considered as an act of the „degradation” of humans and humanity who by rejecting the truth about their nature as suffering creatures, paradoxically also lose the meaning of their life. If one denies suffering, then – at the same time – one closes oneself before life. For the escape from suffering is anything but the escape from life, at least the one that is experienced in a conscious and sensible way.
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