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Human Movement
|
2012
|
tom 13
|
nr 3
247-257
EN
Purpose. Our study aimed at assessing the effects of introducing a modified physical educational program that uses “eduball” educational balls during exercise, play-time and games on the physical fitness of first-grade primary school students. In addition, the study also took under consideration whether any noted changes depended on where the students lived, i.e., in an urban or rural environment. Methods. A total of 127 first-grade students were selected to participate in the pedagogical experiment, with 48 students from a primary school in an urban environment and 79 students from two primary schools located in rural villages. The physical fitness levels of the children were assessed by using selected batteries from the International Physical Fitness Test before and after implementing the “eduball” physical education program. Results. The results found that physical fitness levels were not affected by the use of the “eduball” educational ball, regardless of the environment. However, the physical fitness results of both the boys and girls in the rural experimental group may confirm that the activities that used the educational balls, which emphasize running, can have an impact on the motor development of children’s speed and agility skills. Conclusions. The boys from the urban experimental and urban control groups in both tests achieved better results than their peers from rural areas. However, this may be more strongly related to the overall higher physical fitness levels of the boys from an urban environment (as was found in the first test), rather than their place of residence or their schools’ sports facilities, which were found to be comparable. In the groups of girls, a somewhat different trend was observed, with girls from the urban environment performing better than girls from rural areas among the analyzed fitness variables in the first test, but with the differences leveling out by the second test.
EN
The aim of this study was to sum up the experiences gained during twelve-year research on effects of using educational balls called ‘edubal’ in PE classes in grades 1 to 3 of the primary school (i.e. children aged 7 to 10). The research was carried out in Poland an in Germany. The authors focused their attention on objectives and tasks of contemporary education of children aged 7 to 10 – first of all supporting and stimulating comprehensive development of children, especially with regard to improving coordinative motor abilities which determine, inter alia, reading and writing skills. Employment of ‘edubal’ education balls in early school education (grades 1 to 3 of the primary school) activates cognitive, emotional and physical spheres of a child and hence contributes to the integration of the subject content. The children while participating in PE classes with the use of education balls learn about letters, spelling rules, colours, mathematical signs and punctuation marks as well as numerous rules which are useful in linguistic and mathematical education and they shape their coordination abilities and improve physical skills. Moreover, they also develop their coordination abilities. ‘Edubal’ education balls have a much wider scope of application than it was the case twelve years ago. They are also used in occupational therapy of disabled persons and in work with dyslectic children who attend therapeutic schools.
EN
Introduction. During P.E. classes primary school students (grade 4) ought to improve their level of physical fitness, including coordinative motor abilities, as well as to acquire motor skills which enable them to take part in various forms of physical activity in an active and safe way. Unfortunately, in physical education of children and young people the main emphasis is still placed on the improvement of fitness abilities. We have to bear in mind, however, that the level of coordinative abilities limits significantly the improvement of necessary fitness abilities and vice versa. Our research was aimed at determining what dependencies exist between the results of selected coordinative motor abilities and ten-year-old children’ results of the tests designed by the International Committee for the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests. Material and methods. The research group consisted of 93 students of primary schools in the town of Wołów. In order to determine the level of the particular components of physical fitness we employed the trials of the International Committee for the Standardization of Physical Fitness Tests (ICSPFT). For assessing the particular coordinative abilities we used the following tests: ‘run for the balls’, ‘stopping the rolling ball’, ‘long standing jump with 50% of maximum possibilities’, ‘long standing jump forward and backward’. Results. According to research findings there is a relationship between the improvement of the selected coordinative motor abilities and some of the components of physical fitness. Conclusions. Therefore, a physical education teacher are advised caution in choosing physical exercises and games, taking into consideration comprehensive motor development of students, including their coordinative motor abilities.
EN
Background. Time-space orientation is one of the specific coordination motor abilities. To a large extent, it is genetically conditioned by neurosensory and psychic abilities. Time-space orientation has significant impact on adaptation to rooms of various sizes, perception of obstacles, identifying space patterns, objects and distance. The purpose of this study was to compare level of time-space orientation of students with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia with their peers (without learning disabilities). Material and methods. The research sample included 40 third grade students of two primary schools (18 students from Therapeutic Primary School No. 11 and 22 students from Primary School No. 15 in Wroclaw). In order to determine the level of time-space orientation, a modified Reactive Shuttle Drill test and the research tool Smart Speed System, (similar to that described by Ljach – “run for a ball”, 2003) were used. Results. students (both boys and girls) without any learning disabilities obtained better results. They were not statistically significant. When comparing boys’ and girls’ results, those of statistical significance appeared only in the second test.
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