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Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669) was one of the originators of modern occasionalism theory. Besides philosophy, he studied medicine. Although no sources confirm whether he practiced as a physician, he certainly used his medical knowledge in philosophical works. The present article discusses his concept of man as a unity comprised of body and spirit. The unity is described by Geulincx as human condition. It is given by God and it lasts from conception till death. Spirit as superior substance in human condition has to care for man, both as a unity of body and spirit and for body alone. Fulfilling duty is applied to obtain that. While defining human condition on philosophical grounds and presenting the range of particular duties, Geulincx refers to medicine.
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The author of the article presents biblical Salomon as a man who does not ask God for long life. Salomon can understand his own human condition as a mortal being. This understanding is the ground of human wisdom. To be a human being is to be a mortal being.
This paper compares the Solarian ocean in the novel of Stanislaw Lem with the picture of Pacific in an essay of German postmodern thinker Wolfgang Welsch. The author proves that Lem and Welsch both concern the 'transhuman' point of view in reflecting the human condition in the world.
In the article the author would like to draw the reader's attention to some of the most interesting ideas in the philosophy of Jan Patocka. This 20th-century Czech philosopher developed a very original philosophy. His main interest was focused on the human condition, so complicated and full of paradoxes, as became clear especially in the 20th century, which included two world wars and two totalitarianisms. Moreover, in the later stage of his philosophical development, Patocka concentrated on the historical condition of human life. He tried to describe the origin of history, which is also the origin of philosophy, politics, and freedom. The result is that by entering into history, human beings enter into a permanent state of problematicity.
Pointing to the difference between 'en-soi' and 'pour-soi' the author holds that although Sartre was a staunch atheist in all he has written, he was also a consistent anti-materialist. For Sartre we are material only insofar as we have to exist as a physical 'en-soi'. Other than that we have a moral and intellectual obligation to identify with 'pour-soi'. By adopting this distinction Sartre can retain his conception of human condition as undetermined and contingent. If he chose the materialist position, he would have to admit that we are fully determined by biological instincts and all efforts to establish human responsibility and 'l'engagement' would be doomed to failure. At the same time, however, Sartre passes by an opportunity to offer the human being a guidance for the transition from 'en-soi' to 'en-so', leaving this process basically in the hands of weak and frail individuals. This may be required by his conception of human responsibility, but irrespective of its motivation, his conception leaves man confused and disoriented. We are not prepared to live in a world without God, a world that is, in the author's own words 'like a piece of dead wood, or a dried bone or an empty shell'.
Content available remote Zaangażowanie polityczne jednostki i wspólnoty w ujęciu Hannah Arendt
The article aims at presenting the concept of political activity according to Hannah Arendt’s view. The author of the paper analyzes conditions for occurrence of political activity being the most crucial and fundamental function of implementation of humanity. Next, the author shows that according to Arendt’s view human community and mental abilities of human beings, i.e. thinking, will and judging, constitute a necessary condition of political involvement.
Sartre wrote eight dramas which make a rich commentary on the human predicament and human characters. Although he used the convention of realistic and naturalistic presentation, he was not tempted to discuss timeless problems and situations. On the contrary, he strived to show an individual that laboriously creates her own existence and seeks authenticity in this endeavor. Consequently the inner sphere of thought and feeling is presented as something unique for every individual by Sartre. He deliberately neglected the principle of the unity of time and place. His dramas often present several existential times that run parallel to one another in order to show similarities and/or differences across time and space. He used symbols that were uncommon in theater - colors, smells, light. To convey his ideas more easily, he often user strong language, or even vulgar speech. His plays are based on good dialogues, but stage conversations are primarily directed to, and intended for, the audience. Sartre does not only entertain, when he speaks from the stage he often preaches or discusses philosophicak issues. He is never tired of repeating his basic message that the human condition is replete with paradoxes. His theater was no less suitable for this task than his philosophy. He seemed eager to use every form of expression to prove that the world was deprived of absolute, traditional values, and our main preoccupation should have been to make good use of our freedom and to establish nurturing relations with others.
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