The term homonymous hemianopia refers to visual impairment due to a post-chiasmatic brain lesion. Mammalian neurons of the central nervous system do not have the ability to regenerate. However, the cerebral cortex shows plasticity in certain cases. Motor or speech disorders due to frontal lobe brain damage can be improved with well-directed rehabilitation techniques. If such plasticity is possible, it raises the question whether specialized training could improve a cortical visual disorder. There is need for simple visual training which could be used in rehabilitation. A few different approaches have been developed to treat patients with hemianopia: (1) substitution including special devices, such as optical prisms; compensation using intact residual abilities - especially training of eye movements; (3) restitution which is based on stimulating the blind hemifield. The third method of rehabilitation is the most controversial; however, it has the largest potential. To support concepts of the targeted rehabilitation outlined here, first: further development of the theory of plasticity in visual pathways is required and second: the efficacy of the rehabilitation procedures has to be demonstrated by clinical evidence. We review methods and approaches of hemianopia rehabilitation and treatment. We also review results of contemporary clinical studies and meta-studies.