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EN
I defend two positions concerning interpretation of literature: hypothetical in-tentionalism and critical pluralism. I will address four questions: What is the concept of interpretation? Do we interpret literature differently than non-literature? What are the aims of interpretation? Are there many acceptable interpretations of a given work (the question of pluralism)? My answers are: The concept of interpretation refers in particular to the interpretation of tropes and figures (metaphors, ironies, allegories, etc..). Literary tropes and figures can be interpreted the same way as non-literary. The question “What is the author trying to say with his literary work” is a legitimate question (although sometimes difficult) and seeking the answer to this question is a proper aim of interpretation. When interpreting a literary work readers can make several acceptable (and unacceptable) hypotheses about authorial intention; and the key to the meaning of a literary work is given by the best hypothesis from the position of an informed and competent reader. In addition to that an interpretation may have other legitimate aims (what meanings a text could have for non intended/non implied audience; making a text the best possible artwork etc.). Plurality of interpretations is therefore possible due to different acceptable hypotheses about author’s intentions and different intepretative aims.
EN
The European Union was created with the aim of meeting specific material and spiritual needs. The fundaments of the European Union are unitarism and pluralism. Unitarism, or bonds (unio), is that which unites society. The bond is history, customs, common purpose and the like. What bonds the European Union is primarily European culture, in other words that what links the cultures of individual nations, created for example by Goethe, St. Thomas or Voltaire. The internal factors of European unity are thus common needs, such as, for example, the fight with terrorism, which cannot be fulfilled at the national level. The external factors imposing political unity are globalisation and competition with the United States. In turn, pluralism, although it differentiates a given community, does not destroy it, because the differences become 'conditio sine qua non' of the community. Society is the unity of a defined multiplicity. Each community is the sum of social multiplicity and unity. This means that the preservation of a European identity does not demand the elimination of the differences between nations. However, the Union is not free from the threats which might lead to its disintegration, such as scepticism and agnosticism or secular fundamentalism. A certain type of messianism also underlies the Union which is based on the false assumption that nations are merely a source of evil, for example, that linked with war, thus the resolution of the problems resulting from the multiplicity of nations has to be federation. Following the demonstration of the doubtful character of these premises, we come to the conclusion that Polish tradition, invoking the co-existence of unity and multiplicity, of unitarist and pluralist element, might become a pattern for the further transformation of the European Union.
EN
Today’s upbringing and education environment is determined today by the phenomenon of pluralism. The very existence of varieties and openness to them results in some formation suggestions. They are usually a manifestation of a notion that there is nothing permanent and all the opinions have the same value and are dependent on individual judgements and the complexity of social and cultural conditions. Such pluralism claims that the norms that are commonly acknowledged are almost impossible to carry out and everyone has the right to decide what is right or wrong. The Church notices these ambiguities and claims pluralist upbringing insui cient. However, there are possibilities to cooperate on the basis of solidarity and readiness to have a dialogue.
EN
The issue of old age and ageing covers only the periphery in philosophy. This may be illustrated by taking a look at the history of philosophy within which only a few texts and authors could be found taking pains to shape our understanding of old age. There are two essential reasons for the historical marginal positioning of old age in philosophy: Firstly, the topic of old age and elderly people is less attractive; it struggles to make its way against the great issues of philosophy and is more found in its shade when regarding the issue of death. This statement proves valid both in considering the history of philosophy and modern philosophy within which not many authors pay attention to questions of old age and ageing. Secondly, it was only the qualitative development of environmental conditions, the possibilities of medical science and nursing care in the modern era, and also the low demographic increase in population, that have made the elderly an important part of the population, which, in turn, had them facing a number of challenges: self-realisation, the ideal of youth and, hopefully, the ideal of a successful old age. The article approaches the topic of the elderly, old age, and ageing from what is called a pluralistic position because this can allow for the avoidance of oversimplification which is often connected with the concept of loss.
EN
The article describes the process of the growing plurality of modern economics. It is argued that one of the main stimuli of that change was the growing popularity of transaction cost economics which eased the entry into mainstream economics of what previously had been present only in heterodox economics. After providing a definition of theoretical plurality it is shown that the number of elements in both economic explanans and explanandum has substantially increased. What follows is an inquiry into the ways in which the idea of transaction costs entered mainstream economics. Subsequently, it is claimed that transaction cost economics as put forward by Oliver Williamson served as a theoretical bridge between mainstream economics and heterodoxy. Finally, some methodological insights on the possible interplay between plurality and pluralism in economics are offered.
EN
It is not possible to make a clear definition of the Romanticism in terms of values or aesthetic canon, and also in terms of opposition toward other canons: e.g. Classicism. There are a lot of romantic authors whose works shows classicistic features (e.g. Chateaubriand, Byron, Delacroix, Kleist). It is necessary to understand Romanticism in its variants of 'Romanticisms - and see mainly variety of different 'ideological unites' and artistic forms, who could co-exist within one culture. The article contains three parts. The first one deals with the features of Romantic pluralism, the second one with philosophy of nature (F. Schelling) and the third one concern questions and problems about nature in the early Romantic poetry. There are problems concerning the Romantic understanding of the nature as it is not possible to make a direct and concrete picture of the nature in full authenticity of feelings and experiences. The solution of the problems is to understand the Romantic poetry in terms of communication, as a new type of human communication. That kind of communication based on the power of metaphorical language brings genuine pleasure and knowledge that brings people of different historical periods and different cultures together. That way it produces new values; they replace natural and inevitable truths of human emotions and that way they form a new person, a kind of 'second (parallel) nature'. That is why the virtual character of arts as a technique of communication and knowing of emotions is more important than the reality of nature itself.
EN
The question of whether 'justice' has a universal meaning or it has different meanings in various social schemes has been answered by some philosophers in opposite directions. Michael Walzer is among those who argue that principles of justice vary from one society to another in accordance with different meanings of primary goods, arising from particular historical background conditions. There is no single set of primary goods such as money, political power, social posts, and honours, whose meanings are shared across all cultures; nor are there universally shared principles of distributive justice for him. In this paper the author argues that Walzer's claim, whether distribution of social goods is just or unjust and depending on the cultural meanings of the goods, is untenable and indeed inherently flawed. He suggests that one may adopt a pluralistic approach to principles of distributive justice without being committed to Walzer's relativism.
ARS
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2008
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tom 41
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nr 1
137-146
EN
The article presents interviews with two influential art historians who both plead for rewriting or at least deconstructing modernity, in their eyes a problematic project. The search for contents under a common situation of 'pluralism' might be the common denominator of the interviews that coincide from their different positioning - Kuspit nearer to the symbolic d­mension and Danto from the defense of the interpretation as a way of meaning - in an ethical conception of art criticism.
EN
The paper investigates possible forms of explanatory monism for the cases of non-causal explanations (primarily Reutlinger 2018; Woodward 2018). In the conceptual analysis, the advantages and weaknesses of the counterfactual view of explanation are examined. Although this conception of explanation provides a common explanatory framework, it cannot sufficiently take into account the specificity of individual nomic generalizations and, in the non-causal case, it is difficult to construct a non-interventionist form of counterfactual. Therefore, the paper offers a return to the unificacionist view of explanation (primarily Kitcher 1981), which is a type of explanatory monism, does not suffer from the mentioned problems, and also offers a solution to the problem of asymmetry of noncausal explanations.
10
Content available remote Zaangażowanie polityczne jednostki i wspólnoty w ujęciu Hannah Arendt
70%
EN
The article aims at presenting the concept of political activity according to Hannah Arendt’s view. The author of the paper analyzes conditions for occurrence of political activity being the most crucial and fundamental function of implementation of humanity. Next, the author shows that according to Arendt’s view human community and mental abilities of human beings, i.e. thinking, will and judging, constitute a necessary condition of political involvement.
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nr 4
328-335
EN
The paper offers a discussion of the fundamental principles of the conception of good life as articulated in the classical pragmatist ethics. These principles can be found in Peirce's 'ethical cognitivism', in James's ideas of moral life as well as in Dewey's comprehensive reconstruction of social ethics. Pragmatism provides flexible, imaginative, pluralistic, anti-dogmatic and non-hedonistic conception rather than a ready-made instructions for solving the problems of good life.
EN
In the paper, the author makes reference to L. Kolakowski's 'O co nas pytaja wielcy filozofowie' (What Great Philosophers Ask Us About) and presents the questions and problems posed by his philosophy. The issues include Enlightenment and modernization, freedom and responsibility, pluralism, truth, and dignity. The importance of Kolakowski's questions and answers makes him one of the most eminent modern thinkers.
EN
The puzzle of material constitution can be expressed in at least two ways. First, how can the constituting object and the constituted object, which are materially and spatially coincident, be regarded as different objects? Second, how can the constituting object and the constituted object, which are qualitatively distinct, be regarded as identical objects? Monists argue that the constituting and constituted objects are identical since they are materially and spatially coincident and the property differences between then are simply differences in description, perspective or context. In contrast, pluralists argue that the constituting and constituted objects are not identical even if they are materially and spatially coincident since they are qualitatively distinct. This paper proposes a solution to the puzzle of material constitution called ‘Fregean Monism’ (FM), and shows that it can better account for the property differences between the constituting and constituted objects without the need to regard them as two distinct objects. On the FM view, the puzzle of material constitution is partly a semantic puzzle and partly a metaphysical puzzle, and shows how a solution to the semantic part of the puzzle, based on the Fregean distinction between sense and reference, can yield a satisfactory solution to the metaphysical part of the puzzle. The key idea is that while the reference of a term picks out both the referent object and referent properties, the sense of the term determine which referent properties are picked out.
EN
In this article we present several problems connected with the so-called interdisciplinarity of contemporary onomastics. We consider, among other things, the eclecticism of its methodology and the degree of “equality of rights” of various social and humanistic sciences in the study of personal names. At the same time, we present a dialog position in this matter that is based on coexistence without conflict as partners in linguistics and other fields of knowledge in the scientific description of onyms. To illustrate the usefulness of such dialog thinking in onomastics, we analyze the names of churches and denominational connections from the perspective of linguistics (narratology) and onomastics as well as sociology and history of religion. It is our judgment that, thanks to such a multifaceted treatment of linguistic material, we can more fully show the complexity of these names’ motivation, their historical origin, and the multiplicity of functions fulfilled at present in the sphere of religious and social life.
EN
The article is a response to the gradual increase of votes on the benefits of the so-called illiberal democracy. The motivation for writing arose from the attack of state power against the Central European University in Hungary, the attack on a freedom of expression and separation of state power in Poland, but also as a response to the rise of extremist intolerant movements in Europe. The paper, „Can Foxes and Hedgehogs communicate“, deals with the discussion between opinions supporting the approach of philosophical absolutism on the one hand and relativism on the other. The author focuses on the gradual finding of a suitable concept of values on which legal norms should be built in a society defined by the idea of pluralism, the search for applicable content for the notion of justice and the role of morality in law in the 21st century. The result is the introduction of the so-called political morality, which is an expression of the fundamental values of the associate members of the community within the political space that all members share. Political morality is thus a reflection of principles of a modern liberal democratic concept of Rechtsstaat. In the context of Central Europe, the concept of freedom and equality is at the centre of our attention.
EN
The relationship between international and national law has been traditionally defined by the theories of monism and dualism. These theories became established in a period when it was argued about the primacyof international law over national law or vice versa, or whether international law can be regarded as an autonomous legal system worth of adherence. However, the ideas have been replaced by reflections on the relationship between legal systems as such, in particular in the European area, where European law has wedged in between international and national law. The European Union continuously strengthens the autonomy of European law; therefore we present several considerations on the influence of European law as another legal order applicable by authorities of the member states on the relationship between the laws in conditions of the European region. Although the theory of pluralisn is not a generally established and respected theory describing the relationship among international, European and national laws, a variety of different considerations lead us to review our view of this relationship. They include new function of international law, European regionalism and internationalization of constitutional law and other concepts, which were initially only applicable to national law. Also these reasons bring the ideas on legal pluralism of laws to the foreground. However, there are also considarations, which undermine the position of pluralism as a suitable theory for the relationship among international, European and national laws, such as fragmentation of international law undermining the legal certainty in international law or constitutionalism at global or European level.
17
Content available remote POVAHA A RIZIKÁ FUNDAMENTALIZMU
60%
Studia theologica
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2013
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tom 15
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nr 1
135–156
EN
The article attempts to discuss the question of fundamentalism. After having discussed the Latin roots of the word, it analyses its origin, its modern use and presents certain characteristics of fundamentalism. In the second part of the paper, the relationship between religion and fundamentalism is discussed. The origin of fundamentalism can be found in a lack of “basic trustfulness”. It consequently follows that a post-modern culture may be understood as an incubator of fundamentalism, the reason being that fundamentalism is a reactive system which has a fear of pluralism. This is applied to the Slovak context of racism. In conclusion we suggest certain tools against fundamentalism.
EN
Current development of International law encourage us to rethink well-established theory of monism and dualism explaining the relationship between International and Municipal law.1 New ideas of the relationship of legal orders are emerging mainly in the European region which is affected by the legal order of European Union. These ideas are related to the theory of legal pluralism. Although increasing constitutionalism and fragmentation undermine its foundations, the pluralism is still one of the best solutions how to deal with the new role of International law (which now also govern the fields so far covered just by national law), relationship between International, European and Municipal law or internationalization of the constitutional law. Basic idea of the pluralism is existence of no hierarchy, so we can apply norm of this legal order which is the best for the protection of the values common for all legal orders.
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