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PL
Właściwe określenie zapotrzebowania na powietrze do procesów zachodzących w reaktorach biologicznych oczyszczalni ścieków jest jednym z najbardziej istotnych zagadnień projektowych. Prawidłowy dobór urządzeń napowietrzających wpływa na eksploatację i utrzymanie zakładanych parametrów ścieków na odpływie z oczyszczalni. Ładunki zanieczyszczeń w ściekach dopływających do oczyszczalni charakteryzują się dużą zmiennością ilościową i jakościową. Wiele oczyszczalni ma problem z przeciążeniem ładunkami zanieczyszczeń i niewłaściwym doborem układu napowietrzającego, który staje się w ten sposób poważnym problemem eksploatacyjnym. Często dobór urządzeń napowietrzających, które są ważnym elementem technologicznym oczyszczalni, jest traktowany pobieżnie, z uwagi na coraz bardziej powszechne wykorzystanie do wymiarowania oczyszczalni programów obliczeniowych.
EN
Obtaining hydrogen for energy production purposes from biomass and water. Role of hydrogen as energy carrier. Method of biophoto-lythic production of hydrogen from water.
EN
The binary and ternary complex formations of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PMVEMA) with copper ions and with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence of copper ions in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 were examined by the techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy measurements. In the formation of binary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II), the addition of copper ions to the solution of PMVEMA in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 forms homogeneous solutions when the molar ratio of Cu(II)/MVEMA is 0.5. Then the formations of ternary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II)-BSA were examined. Study analysis revealed that the toxicities of polymer-metal and polymer-metal-protein mixture solutions depend on the nature and ratio of components in mixtures.
EN
The binary and ternary complex formations of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PMVEMA) with copper ions and with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence of copper ions in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 were examined by the techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy measurements. In the formation of binary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II), the addition of copper ions to the solution of PMVEMA in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 forms homogeneous solutions when the molar ratio of Cu(II)/MVEMA is 0.5. Then the formations of ternary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II)-BSA were examined. Study analysis revealed that the toxicities of polymer-metal and polymer-metal-protein mixture solutions depend on the nature and ratio of components in mixtures.
5
75%
EN
Green walls or living walls are architectural installations comprised of plants growing in soil filled, modular panels that are attached to interior or exterior walls. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using green walls to pretreat wastewater generated by small to medium sized food and beverage manufacturers. A 1.2 m high green wall was constructed using two, 610 mm×610 mm panels filled with recycled glass media and planted with Epipremnum aureum. Brewery wastewater was recirculated through the system under four experimental scenarios: media, only; media with bio-film; media with plants; and media with plants and biofilm. Reduction of BOD was at least 65% after 24 hours in all four scenarios. Removal of turbidity, BOD, and total nitrogen was similar in scenarios involving biofilm with or without plants. Green walls appear to offer a space and cost efficient method for pretreating wastewater generated by beverage and food industries.
EN
The performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HFCW) for rural domestic sewage treatment has been evaluated. The system was built as a tertiary treatment after the biological processes to improve the effluent wastewater quality. The HFCW was operated in three phases under different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs), and with three kinds of aquatic plants i.e., water spinach, Chinese celery and cress. The vegetation growth parameters such as plant height, fresh and dry weights were monitored and analyzed. The influent and effluent concentrations of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were measured. The average removal efficiencies at the first phase were 52.9%, 64.7%, 58.2% and 72.8%, and it reduced to 48.6%, 52.2%, 44.04% and 64.4% in the second phase for COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP, respectively. In the third phase, the HFCW system showed the following mean removal efficiencies: 51.2%, 74.2%, 58.5% and 80.9%. The results revealed that the removal efficiencies increased with decrease in the HLR and increased temperatures. The findings confirmed that the horizontal flow constructed wet-land is more convenient for the rural wastewater treatment with efficient nutrient removal.
EN
An anaerobic-anoxic/oxic (AA/O) five-tank biological process called five-step continuous flow activated sludge process (FSCFASP) was developed to force the oscillation of organic matter and nutrient concentrations in process reactors. The run scheme and schematic diagram of FSCFASP was described. The run cycle was divided into two symmetrical half cycles with eight periods during each cycle. The duration of each period was established according to biological process requirements. The optimal running times of the periods were 90, 60, 60, 30, 90, 60,6 0 and 30 min at the HRT of 16 h, air/water ratio of 35% and SRT of 21 day at the temperature range of 19-23 °C. The optimized system achieved 88.09±1.43%, 90.33±2.9%, 68.83±5.34% and 87.67±2.9% of the chemical oxygen demand, NH4+-N, TN, and TP removal efficiencies, respectively, during a 11-month operation with the effluent meeting the Chinese sewage discharge standard GB18918-2002 (level A). Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phenomena were observed in the tank one which is important to reduce the quantity of aeration and the duration of a next anoxic state. Compared with other existing technologies, this system achieved high nitrogen and phosphorus removal without equipment of sludge and mixed liquor return. Thus, it is effective for reducing energy consumption.
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