Recent research shows that Dutch Romanticism is not just a marginal cultural phenomenon but a very often underestimated part of the mainstream 19th century Dutch literature and culture. The lecture by I. B. Kalla focuses on the very specific literary genre - the literary program which seems to be a mirror of the literary life already in the 19th century. The most interesting literary debates in the first half of the 19th century were focusing on Romanticism as the antithesis to Classicism and trying to answer the question of what is 'Romanticism'. Several elements of European (English, German and French) Romanticisms have been accepted by modern Dutch authors such as W. Bilderdijk. Nevertheless, the Dutch cultural mainstream has refused the complex idea of Romanticism.