The text discusses the following questions about the origins of sociological theory in the Czech lands: When was it established? Who, where and how participated in the process of its development? Czech sociological theory is divided into general sociological theory, meta-theory, concrete sociological theory and sociological journalism. The most important for current development in sociological theory is the general sociological theory which receives most attention. Czech sociological functionalism is compared with general functionalism (especially with T. Parsons´ theory). The classical sociological theory is considered in relation to contemporary developments in Czech sociology. With regard to the elaboration of general sociological theory, Brno played a more important part than Prague. The 1930s are identified as a period of its full constitution. I. A. Bláha, J. L. Fischer and E. Chalupný were the main figures in the field. The tension between positivism and anti-positivism is a characteristic feature of the Czech classical sociological theory, together with its ethical dimension which is a common feature of Czech thought in general.