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EN
The authoress intention is to show the potential of the paradigmatic-mythical comparative method on the examples of literary works of earlier periods, such as the Spanish or French (with a fundamental ideological difference underlying the distance of origin) 17th century (she is thinking here of Tirso de Molina's works and Molier's Don Juan), as well as on the 20th century works (e.g. by Gombrowicz or Beckett). The essential difference between these groups of works (and periods of time) is that the first speaks of the functioning of myths and paradigms in the outer world, whereas the latter focuses on the inner world. Nevertheless, a closer look even at the first group of works (which she intends to do in this part of the article), allows to see fundamental differences between them. Tirso de Molina's Don Juan is the one who uses myths and paradigms in an instrumental manner, for his own amusement; whereas Molier's Don Juan seems to be an instrument of an equivocal myth of Nature, similarly to Sganarel being an instrument of an equivocal myth of God.
EN
Anthropocentrism seems to be a key notion associated with the man-nature relation. Probably it is also the most controversial one in environmental ethics. The anthropocentric attitude is sometimes meant to be the main cause of the ecological crisis. One can distinguish at least several stages of the process, which led to this crisis, namely: stage of Magic and Myth, Ancient Times, Middle Ages and Modern Times. The aim of this article is to show the process of development of an anthropocentric thought in the Medieval European culture. Cultural changes of the Middle Ages, under the influence of Christianity among others things, led to the revaluation of the ancient way of thinking. The next step towards anthropocentric attitude in philosophy was made: importance of the human individual increased, his needs and development became more vital than society as a whole. On the other hand, an essential aspect of medieval philosophy was rejecting the earthly world and turning to the transcendental one. One can distinguish three currents of medieval thought, which unlikely understood the meaning of the world and man as well as the way of cognition of the reality. These are mysticism, rationalism and empiricism. Mysticism negated both the value of nature and man as accidental entities. Nonetheless, it elevated man above other creatures. Rationalism assigned the man a central position in nature, for only human being among the accidental material entities is endowed with intellect and grace of faith., On the other hand, empiricism enhanced both the nature (as the subject of cognition and exploitation) and man (as a rational being, who has some extraordinary abilities to use environment to satisfy his needs). The process of drawing away from the holistic view on nature, of its desacralisation and of tending towards controlling it started just in the Middle Ages. In the following ages antiteleologism developed in philosophy, which contributed to the growth of mechanism and rejecting of the inherent value of nature in the Modern Times.
EN
This article concerns the conditions of possibility of thinking about religious transcendence. The premise of these considerations is that the possibility of thinking about transcendence is determined by our understanding of nature. Transcendence can be considered only in relation to what it transcends. The relationship between transcendence and nature means that the possibility of thinking about religious transcendence is closely related to the way of conceiving nature. Different ways of understanding nature determine different ways of understanding transcendence. Nature can be conceived in a way which makes transcendence impossible. The reflection on nature and transcendence in their mutual relations directs us toward a different interpretation of nature that emerged in the history of European thought about φύσις. In the article the contemporary naturalistic interpretation of nature is compared with the theistic interpretation and the Greek understanding of nature.
Umění (Art)
|
2007
|
tom 55
|
nr 6
481-496
EN
This article discussed a number of aspects and characteristics of Skala's work which demonstrate the artist's fundamental concerns with nature and historicity. The author explored how these concerns are manifest in Skala's creation of highly auratic objects, of objects charged with significance within the artist's own personal history, and more generally with historical connotations that pertain to the history of art and the natural sciences. Although Skala works with artificial materials, a central feature of his oeuvre is the erasure of difference between the natural and the cultural. It is this erasure that the author discussed here in the context of Skala's romantic engagement in the natural world, as well as arguing for the importance of broader influences on his work, such as natural history and the representation and perception of nature in various historical epochs. With characteristic paradox, Skala's work can be seen as both profoundly and superficially engaged in the exploration and evocation of historicity. This is typified by his explicitly stylised allusions to romanticism, but it is more generally apparent in his consistent return to nature as the ultimate signifier of history; whether personal, folkloric, or artistic. As well as Skala's well-documented romantic tendencies, he showed the ways in which his work might relate to surrealism: a far more awkward art historical label that does not sit comfortably with Skala himself. Rather than simply discuss his works in relation to the ubiquitous found object of surrealism, the author explored how Skala's 'feeling for nature', for the resemblances of nature, and for the play between the classifications of the natural and the cultural, open up other routes into his work and into the complex network of associations that it constructs.
EN
Drawing on the previous literature offering three possible approaches to form convictions concerning the determinants of human nature, three questionnaires have been developed. The questionnaires were tested in a series of studies (N= 447, age range: 19-60 years). Each questionnaire comprised 8 statements and the statements were all followed by 7-point answer scales. The reliability of the questionnaires - Cronbach's alfa - varied (from.80 to.63) and so did the correlation of individual scales items with the overall results (from.76 to.38). The statistical analysis presented in the article demonstrates that the questionnaires measure three independent convictions concerning the determinants of human nature, i.e.: the belief in the domination of natural factors, the belief in the domination of nurture, the belief in the interaction of nature and nurture.
EN
Anthropocentrism seems to be a fundamental notion concerning the man-nature relation. The anthropocentric attitude is largely meant to be the main cause of the ecological crisis. One can distinguish at least several stages of the process, which led to this crisis, namely: stage of Magic and Myth, Ancient Times, Middle Ages and Modern Times. The aim of this article is to show the process of development of an anthropocentric thought in the Modern European culture, when the culmination of this process is observed. Among the causes of the modern worldview one can mention e.g. the modern conception of science, the technology development, as well as social, political and cultural changes. Contemporary view on nature and man was influenced not only by mechanistic and materialistic theories tending to subordinate nature to man (G. Bruno, F. Bacon, R. Descartes) but also by philosophical views which on the one hand excluded man from nature (I. Kant) and on the other made attempts to restore man to nature (J. J. Rousseau, F. W. J. Schelling).
EN
The main objective of this paper is to expose and phenomenologically analyze the concepts and mutual relationships between 'nature' and 'birth' which derive their origin and specific meaning from the old Greek philosophical tradition, and at the same time play a key role in our contemporary understanding of our own culture, and specifically in understanding of our unique relationship with nature. Scientific idealizations (mathematical-technical thinking) move us more and more away from the primordial experience of nature so that the original experience of nature itself becomes gradually mediated (or replaced) by technical thinking and step by step falls into oblivion. In the next part the author dwells phenomenologically on the meaning of 'birth' and 'being born, which constitutes the condition of every experience and makes my access to physis possible. Being born is therefore my 'emerging from secure darkness of the womb and appearing on the risky lit scene of the world'.. Nowadays, due to technical engineering and genetic manipulations - it became a matter of technology that man can be genetically and technically produced, transformed and 'born' beyond and independently of mother's body. No one can see what kind of creatures can be produced in this way. The tendency to eliminate pain and suffering from pregnancy and birth (and from our life in general) seems to irreversibly transform our attitude to ourselves, to our fate, to nature and natural processes. So, Holderlin's question: 'is there a measure on Earth?' retains its actuality.
EN
The technical and technological expansion of man in the nature environment constitutes an important component of ecological debate. The debate shows the initial confrontation of the antagonized positions. The radical critics of technology rejected the then contemporary technical and industrial system and supported “alternative technology”, whereas the radical promoters of this system represented a naive belief in the unlimited progress of science and technology. After some time this debate was enriched by a new idea: sustainable development. It proposes seeking new solutions to the technical and technological presence of man in the natural environemnet. These solutions are expressed by a proportionally balanced synthesis of both positions. The purpose should be to find a way that would be a compromise between the development of technology and the demands of nature.
EN
The authoress is concerned with the works of the great Latvian poet Edvarts Virza, and she concentrates on his poetic collection 'Bikeris' (The Cup), which is a genuine and at the same time the only piece of work representing Latvian symbolism in 'clear' form. Edvarts Virza subordinates a human life to the natural vegetation cycle and he integrates it into the higher structure of a natural cycle; it is the result of Virza's pantheism (pantheistic teaching), which identifies God with a nature and understands nature as a creative nature (natura naturans), not as a nature created (natura naturata). The model of the relations between man and nature Virza encoded into the symbols of a garden, flower, and cup. In accordance with the poetics of the symbolism these symbols are multi-positioned; they have several levels and surfaces.
EN
An attempt at a detached view of the religious sources of the present-day ecological crisis, going much deeper than, as it is most often claimed, the beginnings of the modern era. Upon the basis of mythological and religious texts the author followed the constant tension and battle between that which is 'human' in man and that which is 'animal'; in doing so, he reveals the profound contradiction between the desire to attain the divine ideal and the descent into animal impulses. Particular attention has been paid to the cultural and civilisational role of the cosmogonic and anthropogonic myth in the Biblical Book of Genesis. The author subjected to a detailed exegesis the contents and consequences of the two 'programmes of Jehovah' contained therein, pertaining to the destiny of man and his role in the created world. He perceived the sources of man's exploitation-oriented attitude towards Nature in the 'imperial' interpretation of the Biblical pericopes about the dominating position of man in the world.
ESPES
|
2013
|
tom 2
|
nr 2
23 – 29
EN
In this paper I would like to deal with the question how environmentally engaged art can infirm Carlson ́s dualism between art and nature in his cognitive environmental aesthetics. I understand environmentally engaged art as a part of new tendencies in the second half of the 20th century, when we can observe shift towards more conceptual and engaged art forms that leave the insides of galleries. This type of art projects are in opposition to Carlson ́s art-nature dichotomy. Equally, I would like to show that science is in Carlson ́s theory limiting and can blocade aesthetic experience in many cases. Eventhough it may appear that science can diminish aesthetic experience, environmentally engaged artists, who often use scientific knowledge in their projects, show, that science can be also beneficial in creating aesthetic ́s intention.
EN
While analysing the problem delineated in this way, the authors of the article refer to selected elements of the nature protection law in forests, focusing attention on the axiological aspect of legal norms related to nature protection and forest management. They define the position of these regulations in the environment protection law system, and on this basis present legal and axiological relations between them. They also pay attention to instruments that provide for protection of forest resources and to special natural values of these resources. At the same time, the authors present imperfections of the binding national legal regulations in the field of nature protection and forest management.
EN
Anthropocentrism seems to be a fundamental notion concerning the man-nature relation. The anthropocentric attitude is largely meant to be the main cause of the ecological crisis. One can distinguish at least several stages of the process, which led to this crisis, namely: stage of Magic and Myth, Ancient Times, Middle Ages and Modern Times. The aim of this article is to show the process of development of an anthropocentric thought in the Modern European culture, when the culmination of this process is observed. Among the causes of the modern worldview one can mention e.g. the modern conception of science (worked out mainly by N. Copernicus, G. Galilei, G. Bruno, F. Bacon, I. Newton, R. Descartes), the technology development, as well as social, political and cultural changes. Both, geocentric and theocentric worldview were rejected. The secularization of European societies shifted man’s attitude not only towards God, but also is creation – nature. People began to treat nature as a challenge and material. God-Creator was replaced by man-designer. A new type of anthropocentrism appeared, which tried to find the answer to the fundamental questions in the human being himself. This resulted in the negation of a strict dependence of mankind on nature and in tendency to subordination nature to man. The cognition of nature served then as a mean for the sake of mankind only. Man was obliged even to dominate nature which was viewed as a complex of mathematical laws, a value-free mechanism determined by laws of nature. Contemporary view on nature and man was influenced also by philosophical views which on the one hand excluded man from nature (I. Kant) and on the other made attempts to restore man to nature (J. J. Rousseau, F. W. J. Schelling).
EN
The place of alchemy in Isaac Newton’s thought is very interesting. Many historians do not believe that alchemy plays any significant role in his philosophy. According to them, its role is entirely minor. This article tries to show that Newton took alchemy very seriously and was even fascinated by it. He looked to alchemy for answers to the most important philosophical questions: about the ether, the primitive particles of nature, and even about God. His alchemical experiments have a very interesting, scientific context.
EN
Intelligent design theory claims that various phenomena of nature were designed by an intelligent being and that design is scientifically detectable. Critics claim, however, that this theory cannot be scientific because it invokes a supernatural creator, which makes it just a new variation of traditional creationism and thereby a religious position. This objection is unsound, because intelligent design theory is not identical with creationism in the traditional sense. The hallmark of this theory is metaphysical minimalism – the detection of design does not entail the identification of a designer, and this means that the designer does not have to be a supernatural being. Thus, intelligent design theory is compatible with a broad spectrum of worldviews, from theism, through deism, to atheism. Whether it can be called “creationism” depends on the meaning ascribed to this ambiguous term. However, using the term causes needless confusion and tends to discredit it out of hand. From an intellectual point of view, therefore, it is preferable not to use this term.
EN
In the article the stance of genetic determinism, represented by Edward Wilson and Richard Dawkins on the grounds of sociobiology, has been presented and critically commented. The stance finds the gene to be the main actor on the stage of life, whom anything else in nature, including man – seen as a machine of replicators’ survival – is subjected. The criticism of the stance held by radical sociobiologists, undertaken by the author, results among other things from her conviction of inability to reduce the meaning of human existence to being subordinated to genes’ existence.
EN
It is not possible to make a clear definition of the Romanticism in terms of values or aesthetic canon, and also in terms of opposition toward other canons: e.g. Classicism. There are a lot of romantic authors whose works shows classicistic features (e.g. Chateaubriand, Byron, Delacroix, Kleist). It is necessary to understand Romanticism in its variants of 'Romanticisms - and see mainly variety of different 'ideological unites' and artistic forms, who could co-exist within one culture. The article contains three parts. The first one deals with the features of Romantic pluralism, the second one with philosophy of nature (F. Schelling) and the third one concern questions and problems about nature in the early Romantic poetry. There are problems concerning the Romantic understanding of the nature as it is not possible to make a direct and concrete picture of the nature in full authenticity of feelings and experiences. The solution of the problems is to understand the Romantic poetry in terms of communication, as a new type of human communication. That kind of communication based on the power of metaphorical language brings genuine pleasure and knowledge that brings people of different historical periods and different cultures together. That way it produces new values; they replace natural and inevitable truths of human emotions and that way they form a new person, a kind of 'second (parallel) nature'. That is why the virtual character of arts as a technique of communication and knowing of emotions is more important than the reality of nature itself.
18
Content available remote Ekofeminizm proba opisu
88%
EN
The article aims at presenting a description and a definition of ecofeminism with regard to the complexity of that theory. The bases for the analysis is the first collection of feminist philosophical essays on ecofeminism entitled Ecological Feminist Philosophies edited by Karren J. Warren. Ecofeminism is an intellectual trend and a social movement, as well as a system of values, and an ethical and political praxis which attempts to improve global and local situation of women and the natural environment. Ecofeminists indicate that all forms of oppression are interrelated, therefore, the liberation of women and environmentalism have a common objective. The goal of the ecofeminist philosophy is to problematize the dualistic vision of man as well as analyzing the epistemological and empirical bases of the polarization of nature and culture. In the first part, the author describes major theoretical assumptions and practical postulates formulated in the field of ecofeminism: the role of patriarchal concepts in perpetuating the domination of women and nature; the grassroots origins and character of ecofeminism; the theoretical fundament of objectification of nature. In the second part, the author discusses in short a project of ecofeminist ethics. The aim of the ecofeminist ethics is to develop an theory and praxis which would encompass women and the natural world. Ecofeminism has shown that the environmental ethics cannot be accurately discussed without an analysis of gender categories and interlocking systems of domination.
EN
The paper examines Rousseau’s approach to the classical “state of nature” conception. Is Rousseau’s system coherent or not? For Rousseau, the state of nature seems to be a hypothetical abstract concept on one hand and a real state of intersubjective relationships within specific human communities on the other.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2018
|
tom 73
|
nr 1
14 – 23
EN
The author argues that two large modifications of human adaptive strategy have taken place in the course of our species’ history: 1. self-preserving modification at the beginning of the emergence of anatomically modern humans; 2. spiritual abandonment of live nature which occurred two thousand years before the end of Neolithic culture. The third modification, namely the turn from the predatory spiritual paradigm to the biophile paradigm, must be performed now. The author describes the latter in detail with regard to the natural sciences and the education system.
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