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EN
There are numerous kinds of accounts of the history semiotics, and a number of people have been claimed to be the founder or a classic of the present-day science of signs. It is primarily the nineteenth-century American pragmatist philosopher, Charles S. Peirce, and the Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, who are usually taken to be its real initiators. Followers of the former use the English term semiotics, whereas those of the latter use the French term 'sémiologie', to refer to the general and specific study of signs today. In accordance with the subject matter of the present conference, the paper first discusses Saussure's reference to the study of signs, followed by a discussion of the work of two modern semioticians, Louis Hjelmselv and Roland Barthes, who have systematised and laid out the areas of modern semiology. It was only to a certain extent that the 'Saussurean' theory of signs was relied on by the next generation of semioticians (like the school of A. J. Greimas). Nevertheless, semiotics as it has consolidated and is applied worldwide today continues to think of Ferdinand de Saussure as one of its classics.
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Content available remote K hledání hranice, kdo kde co v lyrice mluví
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An article developing the long-standing debate between the author and Miroslav Cervenka about the 'limits of the lyric subject from the point of view of its potential for expression', and presenting an overview of Cervenka's analysis of the concept of the 'lyric subject' in relation to the concepts of 'person', 'subject', 'persona' and also offering its own answers to the question.
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The paper focuses on a textual analysis of Jiří Drašnar´s novel Desperados of the information age, attempting to determine the devices and narrative mechanisms by means of which the double, or rather triple cultural space is configured in the text – a space which is in its basic role manifests itself as an oscillation between indigenous and foreign spaces. The spatial aspect is discussed with respect to one of the contemporary trends of literary theory, the so-called spatial turn, which presents a methodological-thematic link in the post-colonial thought.
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About ten years ago the literary William J. T. Mitchell and the literary historian Gottfried Boehm declared the iconic turn in all sciences, which should have rehabilitated picture as a specific form of constructing meaning, independent of language. Their inspiration was the linguistic turn in philosophy and sciences in the 20th century. Thereby they brought to life a discussion, which, especially in German speaking countries, is gradually rebuilding the systematic of all sciences. Still more frequent are the calls for 'Bildwissenschaft', i.e. for a special icon-science which should be at least as successful as was the linguistic turn. The paper offers a systematic outline of this discussion held during the last 15 years. In addition to that it gives the basic historical, bibliographical and institutional data concerning the rise of this new icon-science.
EN
'Visualisation' is nowadays one of the most expansive notions in cultural (semiotic) studies, including literary research. By means of introductory remarks to the periodical's present issue, the author discusses the notion's various meanings and applications - from' practical/service-oriented' in the domain of computer graphics, through to psychotherapeutic ones, various varieties of visual arts, anthropology of sensuality and its cultural forms, visual-arts concepts and visual arts' associations with literature, up to theoretical afterthought on the status of literary text.
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The main aim of the text is to analyse the narratological category “unreliability” in relation to the basic domains within which it is defined by the post classical narratology. The basis for the analysis are various texts − both the fictional and the nonfictional nature. In the scope of this study are fictional and nonfictional speakers and characters in relation to the three dimensions of textual worlds which are here understood as the strategy of construction of the meaning: the first is the domain or the construction of “truth”, the second is the domain or construction of “self” and the third one is the domain or constructing of the whole of the fictional world − the domain of the text. The author suggests in his study that while the first two domains are clamouring extra textual control activities, which is the relationship between text and context, only the third domain allows us to perceive unreliability as a narrative category as a category of narrative analysis.
EN
The article poses a question as to the circumstances of adaptation between the Soviet power and the individual in Estonia. Relying on Yuri Lotman’s theory of the semiosphere, particularly on his notion of the “text within the text” and Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of dialogism, the question is posed as to the kind of “thinking device” the Soviet official language changed into in Estonia during the period of Soviet annexation. Two types of documents, Soviet court files and a post-Soviet life story are analysed comparatively to reveal the dynamics of the conflict from the standpoint of power on one side and the complexity of the individual experience from the other side. It is demonstrated that, from the point of view of an individual, the adaptation of the language of power is conditional and ambivalent, being linked to resistance, survival or the absence of alternative linguistic resources. On the other hand, it occurred that, being confronted with contesting voices, the language of power was not able to maintain its univocality in longer perspective.
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Content available remote Řeč hudby a řeč o hudbě
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EN
This essay discusses several topics concerning the relations between language (linguistics) and music (musicology). The first section deals with the problems of the semiotic interpretation of music (instrumental and absolute) and finds that the difficulties in arriving at clear-cut solutions to them follow from the problematic and unclear status of the signatum of musical works. In the following section, the question of 'musical content' is discussed on the basis of two classically opposing standpoints: aesthetic autonomy and aesthetic heteronomy. A further issue examined is the existential mode of musical works (with emphasis on their interpretive essence) and the position of 'text' in musical discourse. A small set of established Italian and Czech terms indicating the manner of execution are examined and their semantic vagueness and heterogeneity stated. The final section briefly comments on the various manners and genres of talking and writing about music. In particular, several texts from sleeve notes are critically examined and the usefulness as well as the problematic musicological status and mixed linguo-stylistic qualities of various concert guides, program booklets, etc. are examined.
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This article attempts at describing the role of town-space advertising in the shaping of semiosphere of colloquial experience in our culture and in the building of our beliefs and images on the semiosphere of daily life.
EN
Described are the general composition principles of frescos by Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) at the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, and the novelty of narrative techniques applied therein. The 'Kiss of Judas' is analysed and compared against the Gospel-based 'give-up' scene as well as the categories of 'faithfulness' and 'trustfulness' as interpreted in the early Christianity. Another topic is the anthropological dimension of the sacrifice of Christ. The essay's conclusive section characterises the Florentine Renaissance as one of the 'axial ages' (quoting Karl Jaspers' notion) in the history of mankind.
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The present paper deals with the relationship between Czech structuralism and Avant-garde. Jan Mukařovský’s effort to constitute a universally valid model of art can be understood as an implicit apology for the avant-garde concept of art, as making its principles into the trans-historicaly valid “essence” of art. His project to formulate a dynamic structuralism by means of the connection of the idea of structure with the idea of dialectical antitheses, can be regarded as an attempt to justify the validity of the basic contradiction of the inter-war Avant-gardes: their efforts to liquidate art as an autonomous institution and transform art into life itself on one side, while on the other retaining the demiurgic ability of art and so its privileged position in social life, giving it an irreplaceable role and a new active autonomy. Also Mukařovsky´s idea of the semiotic nature of art, his model of art as an autonomous sign was a means of dialectical synthesis of autonomy and heteronomy. Nevertheless, Mukařovský’s model of art was not ideologically critical. It contained an implicit theoretical apology of the socially affirmative nature of Czech avant-garde art. Moreover, Mukařovský attempted to remove the antagonism, which had arisen between the academic study of art and anti-bourgeois Avant-garde.
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Content available remote Felix Vodička: Úkoly literární historie a jejich zdroj
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EN
The paper aims to present and interpret the methods of literary history developed by Felix Vodicka, one of the main representatives of Czech structuralism. The paper describes the variables of the paradigm in the field of literary history and the reasons for this metamorphosis. Attention is focused on the most significant notions of the structuralist analysis of the diachrony of structure: aesthetic object, aesthetic norm, esthetic function and aesthetic value, which were traditionally connected with the synchronic point of view of analysis, and which Vodicka strives “to translate” into the language of diachronic analysis.
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The study is aimed at the analysis of the particular expressive qualities (semiotically linked with linguistic and thematic elements) of Miguel de Unamuno’s “Mist” and their function and validity in literary communication. The style-oriented research enables the identification of differences as well as cooperation between discursive and presentational modes in Unamuno’s essays and fiction. Several aspects of genre were considered and Unamuno’s method of creating personae was taken into account in order to explicate the indexical, metonymical relationship between Tragic Sense of Life in Men and in Peoples and Mist. It is not only Unamuno’s thought that guides his fiction but also his narrative production and aesthetics of paradoxes and contradictions that contextualizes his philosophy. The works of Miguel de Unamuno show that the area between philosophy and literature can be characterized by increased semiotic activity. In the circumstances, the function of metalepsis as a means of open extradiegetic communication between the author, literary characters and the reader and as a representation of the agonistic principle of perception of the world and reality is highlighted.
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The article offers an alternative story about the structuralism in science, philosophy, and semiotics based on the exposition of Ch. S. Peirce's philosophical project - pragmatism. Contemporary tendency to consider structuralism as naive and dead is put in contrast with the reassessment of the potential of structuralism in natural sciences and linguistic anthropology.
EN
Combination of Word and Image has been recently made part of literary works, with increasing frequency (e.g. novel narratives or lyrical monologues). In such cases, image becomes part of the utterance itself, finding a place for itself in a certain sender-receiver relationship arrangement, thus also becoming a pole of various meaning-generating tensions and an integral part of the entire work. The article aims at discussing the role that images, i.e. iconic signs, play in the structure of artistic pieces of this sort. The main focus is on the multiple semiotic games whose basis is the clash of differing sign-based orders, world-representing forms and communicative conventions. Analysis of selected pieces aims at showing the multiplicity of possible functions ascribed to visual elements as part of verbal text. A comparison of the achievements of a few selected writers is also convincing of how mutually remote positions were assumed by artists against the significative value of iconic sings (from affirmation, criticism, through to problematisation). The condition for the reader to understand the arrangement s/he comes across is, therefore, to find its suspected motivations, to discover the premises providing the grounds for such a course of presentation, and, to formulate a hypothesis restoring the coherency of a text being based upon two incommensurable orders of meaning.
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Content available remote Umění zrající svými přesahy
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EN
This essay is focused on the phenomenological qualification not only - as demonstrated by Elmar Holenstein in particular - of linguistic aspects of the Prague School, but also its literary-studies aspects. One must also take into account the transcendental result of a given impulse, of the determining status of the opposite transcendental gestures of an artistic text. It is useful in this connection to imagine the shifts in the composition of the 'artistic situation', which arise from Mukarovsky's 1943 distinction between the work-thing and the work-sign.
EN
The author of the study explores the dynamics of the peripeties in the developments in literary-scientific thinking in broader contexts of cultural life in Slovakia. He describes the individual personalities and points out the uniqueness of their contributions to the literary scientific discourse, as well as Slovak cultural milieu while depicting them as phenomena transcending national and cultural boundaries as well as boundaries among disciplines. The contexts of reflections between the poles of modernity and conservatism create: abstract art, visual avant-garde, Russian formalism, Viennese neo-positivism, psychoanalysis, structuralism and semiotics. The author outlines the semiotic conception of language and a whole range of transtextuality (intertextuality, paratextuality, metatextuality, architextuality and hypertextuality), metonymy and metaphor, the problem of the archeology of cultural memory, post-structuralism and pulsation aesthetics.
EN
The paper delineates conditions of theoretical transformations in the works of Lubomír Doležal and Thomas G. Pavel, starting from the assumption that their cultural evolution has been similar. Not only did they share the same ideological background, common to the East and Central European countries under the Soviet regime, but their theoretical options were coloured by the same dilemmas. Originally they were promoters of the structuralist linguistic methods, they both embraced linguistic approaches to literature in their first books only to depart from them later in favour of the possible world theory. A comparative focus on the stages of their evolution from the linguistic turn to the referential turn is needed. The study emphasizes both the specificities of this evolution – indebted to the autochthonous tradition of the two authors – and its paradigmatic aspect: the mobility of their theoretical reflection enacts the metamorphosis of the literary studies throughout the last half century.
EN
Antonyms - just like synonyms and homonyms - may affect each other's meanings, even though opposition does not have as important a role in meaning specification as synonymy or homonymy does. In forming pairs of opposites, both concrete and abstract ones, an important role is played by derivational suffixes of opposite functions. Denominal privative adjectives in -tlAn denoting 'lacking something' tend to contrast semantically with adjectives carrying the suffix -(V)s meaning 'being supplied with something' and/or with constructions suffixed by -(j)U, closely related to the former. Available definitions of the uses of -(V)s and -(j)U suggest that the privative forms should only contrast semantically with derivatives involving -(V)s, in view of the fact that it is only a 'part-whole' relationship that makes it possible to detach the 'part' from the 'whole'. Indeed, a prerequisite of the use of a privative suffix is that the 'part' should be an alienable part or property of the possessive argument bearing the subject role. The aim of this paper is a presentation and semantic analysis of pairs of antonyms, as well as their classification into categories based on the various notions of opposites (exclusive opposition, converseness, difference in degree) in semiotics. The author gives a detailed account of pairs of words in -tlAn vs. -(V)s derived from the same stem and hence antonymous in terms of the original semantics of their suffixes, noting that such derivatives in some cases have deviated from their original meanings (e.g., csinos 'pretty' - csintalan 'naughty', kedves 'kind' - kedvetlen 'dispirited', szemes 'cute' - szemtelen 'impertinent'), and she devotes special attention to privative doublets (emerging due to semantic fission) and their opposites (e.g., alomtalan 'dreamless' / almatlan 'sleepless' - almos 'sleepy', gondtalan 'carefree' / gondatlan 'careless' - gondos 'careful').
EN
The subjects of the study are the semiotic and communicational aspects of rhythm. These aspects are approached from the point of view of a theory called rhythmanalysis, drawing on philosophers such as dos Santos, Bachelard and Lefebvre. The first part explores in what way the structurally oriented semiotics and linguistics contribute to understanding the rhythms. The next one focuses on the anthropologically oriented rhythmanalysis and its results when applied in the study of individual and social demonstrations of rhythm. In the final part the attention is drawn to the concept of polyrhythm.
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