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Content available Współczesne procesy eoliczne w Europie
Aeolian processes nowadays belong to the most important exogenetic processes forming the European landscape. On the one hand, these processes are developing under natural conditions in the areas beyond the extent of forest and compact plant cover, i.e. in the far North (polar countries), in the semi-desert on the Caspian Sea, in the upper parts of mountains, on sea coasts, and on the other hand in anthropogenically transformed areas, i.e. mostly in arable land. The following types of contemporary aeolian processes in Europe are distinguished and described: 1) dust storms and aeolian dust deposition, 2) wind erosion of soils and dune deflation, 3) aeolian processes in river valleys, 4) aeolian processes in mountains, 5) aeolian processes on sea coasts. The first two processes (dust storms and wind erosion) are the most important. Their significance results from the common occurrence (Fig. 1) and real and potential intensity of these phenomena - including extreme ones. They can cause heavy economic losses.
The authors presented the findings from the morphological and structural research of several beaches located on some of the Cape Verde Islands. These islands constructed from granulometrically and petrographically varied rocks, mostly origanated from Mesozoic and Tertiary volcanites. They are also influenced by tides: semidiurnal tides which reach a height of 0.5-1.5 m, and steady trade winds which blow from the north-east. It was revealed that the beaches in question in terms of their morphological and lithological features can be classified as environments characterised by considerable energy of coastal processes.
The aim of the present paper is description of the beginning of bioenergetics studies and its development in Poland, in Warsaw center of biological sciences. Generally bioenergetics is the study of energy transformations in living organisms, and that such a study may be according to any one of three approaches: the molecular-biochemical, the physiological and the ecological. It should be noted therefore that ecological bioenergetics, being concerned solely with energy transformations by ecological units, is but one aspect of ecology; although one which can make significant contribution to our understanding of how a nature functions. The main fields of bioenergetics studies in Institute of Ecology and than in the Centre for Ecological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Dziekanów Leśny near Warsaw are: energetic budgets of invertebrates, bioenergetics of early developmental stages of fish species, mathematical modeling of energy flow through an animal, population, community and ecosystems, such a soil, sandy beach etc. Now bioenergetics can be a useful tool in individual-based approach in ecology.
Vistula River is the last big, wild and unregulated river in Western and Central Europe. And it is its the biggest value - it is the south-north ecological corridor for water and terrestrial animals, habitat for many species of birds in summer and in winter. The sandy banks and islands in the Vistula River play a important role in self-purification of riverine water - one square meter of the sandy bank (or beach) utilizes 100 g of organic matter (in Vistula there are first of all anthropogenic wastes)per year. If this 100 g will be multiplied by hundred thousands square meters of riverine beaches, sand banks and other sandy places, we will have tons of wastes utilized by sandy microfauna to carbon dioxide gas and water. And it is main reason why me must protect the natural “wildness” of Vistula River.
It was proved that the soil of recreational areas can be potential source of human geohelminthiosis. The eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichocephalus trichiurus as well as of Toxocara canis were found on the beaches of Poznań lakes.
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