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Study aim: the aim of the study was to identify differences between athletically trained and untrained subjects with respect to body composition, motor and cognitive abilities. Materials and methods: three groups of girls aged 12 to 14 years old participated in the study: young judokas (n = 42), volleyball players (n = 54) and their untrained peers (n = 54). Variables of interest were assessed through eight motor tests, nine anthropometric variables and the RSPM. Results: this study showed differences in some anthropometric characteristics and almost all motoric abilities between trained girls and untrained girls (p < 0.05), indicating that well-programmed activity can positively influence these characteristics and abilities. In addition, group of volleyball players presented significantly better results in cognitive abilities (p < 0.01), indicating a need for intelligence in complex sports like volleyball. Conclusions: generally, the trained groups of athletes possessed better coordination and strength than their untrained counterparts.
Content available remote Asymmetry of muscle strength in elite athletes
Study aim: To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes.Material and methods: Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength measurements of relative peak torques of knee flexor and extensor muscles on "Easy-Tech" dynamometer in concentric-concentric mode.Results: Mean relative peak muscle torques for knee flexors ranged from 1.14 ±0.27 (untrained) to 1.57 ±0.40 (judoists) N·m/kg and for knee extensors from 2.77 ± 0.34 (untrained) to 3.60 ± 0.64 (wrestlers) N·m/kg. The flexor-to-extensor ratios ranged from 39.3 ± 6.0 to 47.8 ± 10.8% and did not differ significantly between groups. Absolute right/left asymmetry for knee flexors ranged from 14.6 ± 10.4 to 17.4 ± 11.8% and was significantly (p<0.01) higher than for knee extensors (7.2 ± 6.8 to 8.6 ± 7.7%). All asymmetry indices were significant (p<0.01), no significant between group differences being detected.Conclusions: Implementing new training elements and modalities may improve the performance and prevent lateral asymmetry thus decreasing the risk of injuries.
The aim of this article is to describe the mechanisms of the genesis and functioning of martial arts from the historical point of view, as a product of continuous exchange of knowledge, on both regional and international levels. The article responds to contemporary trends in the research of martial arts. It is not strictly focused on any geographical area or historical period; rather, it attempts to outline the general facts applicable to most combat systems of the world, by taking into account the similarities of various techniques. For this purpose, the focus of the author is mainly on modern Japanese martial arts. However, the article is also based on the traditions of European martial arts’ masters, which are well known to us, as well as on the worldwide historical development of martial arts.
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