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EN
The review analyses a collection of 26 authors of different countries, the theme of set being the narration in comparative perspective. The volume is of interdisciplinary character, and the subject of narration is broadly compassed.
EN
In traditional modernistic pedagogy one question has been asked: Is there education adequate to reality? Postmodernist questioning of traditional understanding of reality leads to the question about virtuality of education, i.e. about preparing a human being to cooperate with reality which is understood as something transitional between the real world, though yet unborn, and the desired and imagined world. The article presents the issue in the context of Jean-Françoise Lyotard's postmodernist philosophy.
EN
The aim of this study is to compare the scripts of love and hate of the persons with the antisocial personality. The participants had to describe the situations presented at the photographs. The narrative discourse was analyzed concerning two situations: the love meeting and the quarrel. The comparisons of the script's construction and content in each group were conducted. There were examined 61 prisoners with the high antisocial tendencies, and 39 prisoners with low antisocial tendencies, and 100 men without the antisocial tendencies. People with high antisocial tendency enumerated more actors in the stories about love than about hate. Their descriptions of the actors were richer in the stories about hate. They described the actions and causes of hate situation. They used stronger vocabularies while created the stories about hate than prisoners without antisocial tendencies and the controls. The stories about hate written by antisocial prisoners were more expressive, richer and positively finished. The results show the antisocial persons have more constructed script of hate than of love. This affective schema determines an incapacity for love and a special ability to experience anger and hate. That is why antisocial persons could have the problems of relationships.
EN
The article is an analysis of subjectivity of the history of literature created by individual subjects (internal and external subject of an author) but also impersonal subjects. He states limits and mechanisms creating context overlapping individual level of the historian's discourse. He also studies narrative and pragmatic constants managing historical narration. The hero of that - internal subject - is a national literature itself.
EN
The author in his article comes out from the experiences they have as a group of authors writing a publication on history of Hungarian Literature. He reflects problems relating to such type of work. They mostly concerned determination of the object what the national literature is, description of the concept of what become a part of literature, as well as acceptance of plurality in the concept of the history resigned to 'big narrations'.
6
Content available remote “Tu my jesteśmy”. O pamięci nowych mieszkańców dawnej łemkowskiej wsi
80%
Lud
|
2012
|
tom 96
203-226
EN
The article presents selected conclusions from the ethnographic field research conducted in 2010-2011 in Wisłok Wielki, a village situated in Podkarpacie region, in south-eastern Poland. This study was carried out as a re-study of a local community after the research made by British social anthropologist Chris Hann, who resided in this place in 1981 and published a book A Village without Solidarity: Polish Peasants in Years of Crisis (1985). One of the questions of the research – presented shortly in the article – was social memory of the inhabitants of the village, the immigrants descended from many directions of Poland who came to Wisłok after the Lemkos, indigenous people, had been displaced in 1944-1947. During the research it occurred that people from Wisłok are aware of the Lemkos’ past of the village. Nevertheless, their narrations are distorted by many factors (time, books, personal prejudice against the Ukrainians stemming from the dramatic experiences with the Ukrainian Insurgent Army – UPA or by being prone to negative stereotypes). It depends also on the generation that a narrator belongs to, and, which seems to be crucial, time when a “pioneer” came to the village. The Lemkos in Wisłok, although some of them returned, are treated as representatives of dead culture which can be revived only temporarily, for instance, by an ethnographer’s question.
EN
The text implicitly compares the principles of the production, especially the theatrical, with the principles of creating a narrative conflict in video games. It explicitly focuses on the processes of video game simulation. It‘s carried out through the optics of two approaches to video game theory. The first is the aspect of professional discourse in which it uses already established professional terminology from theatrical theory and tries to identify aspects of video games that correspond with it. In doing so, the author of the text suggests that there are two basic video-game principles – competitiveness and interactive narration. Those principles oppose each other while focusing on the second. So the author understands the production as a kind of simulation and argues why this storytelling principle also appears in video games. The second principle of thinking about video games is thinking from the perspective of the players. In this context, the author seeks arguments to confirm his thesis. In the unstable terminology of video games, he reveals basic thinking in opposition to competitive playing and role-playing. Ultimately, he describes the relationship between the production and simulation in the context of video games as a narrative medium.
EN
During the last decade of the twentieth century, the late professor Kazimierz Liman worked on the application of classic literary communication model in the research on the mediaeval chronicles. The result was a paper delivered at the conference The Mediaeval Chronicle which took place in 1996 in Utrecht, which has never been published as a whole. We have decided to include it in the present volume not only to honour the author, but also because we are convinced of its great contribution to the research on Latin mediaeval literature.
EN
People with disabilities represent one of the excluded groups whose narratives are not listened to, noticed or treated on equal terms with the narratives of others. Thus, the aim of the authoress' research project was to listen to stories told by those who became disabled in adulthood. Using the narrative interview method she invited and encouraged the disabled to tell stories about their lives, about some significant life episodes, and about how they experience disability in general. Disability triggers great many changes and makes it necessary to redefine one's life and identity all over again. The analysis of life stories obtained from those experiencing disability in adulthood has provided some concepts of biographical learning e.g. 'breaking' of biography, turning point in biography, floating in adulthood. Experiencing disability is one of the situations where emotions show. Therefore, some of the narratives are filled with emotions, which she, as a researcher, also absorbed.
EN
The author pays attention to narrativity - which has been considered very crucial in recent decades in creating presentation of past events. Narration is a basic act in works of historians as well as prose writers. The author deals with some common aspects of narration in texts by historians and fiction writers. Historical text and fictional text are created by structural building of narration, where selection and hierarchization of facts is made, selected narration elements are put in a compact interpretation giving particular events sense and meaning. A certain aim of an author of narration cannot be excluded and procedures in the building of narrative structure are similar in both cases, but specific procedures, aimed at results not acceptable in a scientific text, are applied in fictional text. Next the author examines the main differences resulting from different characters of reference of both text fields and from their different position in a net of social discourses. The crucial difference originates in the ontological nature of facts included in a historian's narration compared to the 'facts' given by fiction. This is connected to differences in the references of the two types of text. The next differentiation aspect is represented by the aims followed in creating historical and fictional narration. These aims are influenced by our cultural frame. The texts of a historian and a fiction writer are produced and perceived in diverse 'receptive regimes'; the two kinds of text enter different levels of expectation and fulfill diverse functions.
EN
This study deals with the short stories by the Slovak writer Milo Urban from the second half of the 20th century, part of which was published in the collection 'Z ticheho frontu' (1932). The authoress of the study shows that the structure of these works was influenced by the fact that they were originally published in the newspapers and the journals. The base of the study is the interpretation of Urban's short stories published in the journals and the papers - 'Slovak', 'Slovensky dennik a Slovenska politika' in the second half of the 20s of the 20th century. On the background of social position of the mountain dwellers Urban deals with their personal balancing with a difficult fate. Urban places the elementary views of an ordinary man coming out from the authentic christianity against relativism and the wrong values. Regarding the recipient the writer emphasized a model 'sujet' and he included the elements of a fairy-tale, calendar prose and sentimental prose well-known to wide group of the readers. A complicated semantics was replaced by the unambiguous message. A man in this prose is a part of the village society and is first of all a moral being. The authoress comes out from the theses in which meet the ideas of the christianity with the idea of the myth of soil, and the idea of unanimism (fusion of an individual with a collective soul).
EN
The story level of composition in the detective genre is dominant. It dominates over other elements in the structure and keeps coherence of it. Stanko Lasic characterises that composition of a detective story (and also criminal genre) as linearly-reflexive. The starting point of narration is breaking the narrative balance, which is based on a motive of secrecy (mysterious crime, mostly murder with unknown criminal) and in the following block of searching the motives are organised in a specific way - during investigation new facts are revealed (that is the linear narrative movement forward). The revealed facts concern an event from past (that means retrospective movement back). One motive within a segment of investigation is simultaneously participating also in both perspective and retrospective movement; that means it contains two contrary vectors. Arranging activity of plot reverses chronologically causal order of motives in the story through inversion: first it distributes consequences, the result of a murdering act (mysterious crime) and only then - in the scene of solution - the causes, 'past' of the crime. Detective story is based on another story - the reconstruction of that story. It is a story of investigation (that is the story) of the story of murdering (plot). The story board of the detective story is searching of the plot of the crime and in the bock of solution it is transformed into that plot (in a summary of the acts and events). The beginning of the story of investigation is at the same time the end of the story of murdering.
Slavica Slovaca
|
2013
|
tom 48
|
nr 2
139 - 152
EN
The paper provides the analysis of J.Doruľa’s study covering the research into the historically and generically marked vocabulary of tales which partially intersects with the vocabulary of the written monuments, dialects and fiction. The analysis focuses on the theoretical and practical interpretation of axiological peculiarities of the language of classical publication of the Slovak tales in comparative projection with their modern editing. The author further identifies the general and Slovakia-specific tendencies in the use of folklore texts in modern scientific paradigm of Slovakia, Russia and Belorussia.
EN
The paper deals with the ever growing fragmentation of our self-determination, which is due to the atomizing of human activities. This leads to the difficulties in our being integrated into the continuum in life practices. The connections between psychological and sociological aspects of identity and a particular conception of values, especially that of the values of a person, and good life is questioned. The question is, if in the conditions of plurality of values, the ideas of identity, continuity and coherent personal identity are plausible at all. We witness a destructive influence of contemporary culture upon the narrative structures of our lives and their narrative cores, i.e. our 'Selves'.
EN
Adult education research is a part of biographical turn in social science research. Because of that, both research and theory became more dynamic. Biographical methodology is by no means strange for Polish researchers. Florian Znaniecki introduced the method in sociology and established it in Poland. Starting from 1921, it was used in a form of a written competition (autobiography) amongst different groups. How this method was established in adult education research and how it is used is the focus of this article. First, it concerns the development of biographical research and its popularity in social sciences, followed by the impact of this method upon adult education. Especially, contribution to English and German research is described as it is where the influence is the biggest (West et al.). Third, it touches on the issues of biographicity and narration. It is followed by the methodology of biographical research with emphasis on both collection and analysis of biographical data; there are also named different QDAs (Qualitative Data Analysis) as well as Grounded Theory. Fifth, the focus is on biographicity and biographical learning with Peter Alheit's research taken into particular account. Afterwards, two theoretical contributions based on biographical data are presented in depth - biographical trajectory as a concept of suffering (Glaser & Strauss, Riemann & Schütze), and floating as a concept of going through crises in life (A. Bron). These are the concepts which contributed to biographical learning, to understanding changes in life and struggling with own identity. Finally, the consequences of biographicity and biographical research for adult educators are discussed.
16
Content available remote (NE)MOŽNOSŤ AUTOBIOGRAFIE V DIELE KARLA ČAPKA “OBYČAJNÝ ŽIVOT”
70%
EN
The paper interprets “Obyčejný život”, a work by Karel Čapek in the context of the late 20th century autobiography theories. Previous interpretations are more or less dominated by the so called noetic aspects, however, the autobiographical difficulties raised by the work, the impossibility of imagining life as narration, and facing the multifacetedness of the self-raise the possibility of employing autobiographical considerations. An interesting feature of the analysed work is that it includes an embedded story, an autobiographical text, which has a double structure: the first part includes a traditional autobiography; the second part consists of the dismantlement, rethinking and re-evaluation of the first part. The aim of this anti-autobiography is to liberate the autobiographer from his illusions about the working of an autobiography and to point at the failure of idealized preconceptions about life story narration. An anti-autobiography works as meta-autobiography and rewrites the relationship of the autobiography and the autobiographer. It intends to riddle the autobiographer ś myth about his/her own autobiographer: it points at the fact that the autobiographer works with a distorting memory instead of a precise one and employs metaphorical narration instead of metonymical, presents only life fragments instead of a whole life story and instead of a homogeneous self it presents multiple, heterogeneous subject.
EN
The article is focused on interpretation of the most popular and known fiction by Slovak author Vincent Sikula. His novelette S Rozarkou (With Rozarka 1966) belongs to the early and the most productive period of his work (fictions from the 60-tieth) and represents one of two significant creative tendencies of the writer - he was focused more on the private problems, on a single relationship, destiny. Concurrently to that in a polyphonic narration with the book Nebyva na kazdom vrsku hostinec (There is not an Inn on Every Top Hill) he began to develop other socially - historical line, culminating in his collection of fictions Tazisko (The Locus). The study is an attempt to depict a narrative concept of the fiction, determining by two contra dictionary intentions. The narrator and the protagonist of the story took cares for an adult but mentally retarded sister Rozarka. Her condition cannot be (is not intentionally) determined. The empty space of silence is to be filled by something else not corresponding to the problem; almost half of the narration is filled with stories. Simple, private space, localized story of a brother and a sister´s sharing lives together became a source of themes which are foundational for the formatting principles of the narration; the fiction With Rozarka is in that way also a story about birth of a narrator who shares his experience coming from the difficult circumstances. Vincent Sikula developed in that novelette a unique variant of sentimentalism. His work is one of his creative climaxes and also it could be determined as regionally distinctive contribution to a Slovak version of 'sentimental maturing'. It is tendency putting together Sikula´s works with fictions of some of younger writers, e.g. Rudolf Sloboda, Pavol Vilikovsky, Dusan Kuzel, and Pavol Hruz.
EN
In this article I argue that what could contribute to creating trust today are historiographic forms of narrations that resemble testimonies made by witnesses of the past, which I have defined as the “substitute testimony”. The focal point of my considerations is, firstly, the difference between a substitute testimony and a testimony given by a witness of the epoch, and secondly, its attitude to philosophical criticism that analyses the issue of giving a testimony. My propositions are based on the theory of testimony by Ricoeur. According to it, a testimony is a narration created through communicating everyday reality. Building a substitute testimony means formulating suppositions with respect to the possibility of experiencing past events by their participants as well as historian’s creation of a personal, subjective involvement in the difficult historical issues.
EN
This paper analyses the religious conversion of Roma in a region of eastern Slovakia of mixed ethnic and religious composition, focusing on the most important factors which influence this phenomenon. The conclusions also take account of the heterogeneity of Roma in the locality under examination, since the Romani communities there have different social levels, living conditions and degrees of contact with the majority. Religious conversion is a complicated process, with a number of determinants playing their parts. For the purposes of the paper’s interpretative framework, it seems most advantageous to use the stage model of religious conversion; family and social bonds are equally important, and also the personality of the missionary. The disposition of Roma towards religious conversion is strikingly influenced by the factors of social control and the firm social structure in the community. Analysis of the conversion narratives has shown that an individual crisis in various life situations, together with personal and social factors, functions as the starting mechanism of religious conversion. The fact, that in several localities Roma have a tendency to convert in larger numbers may be caused by the fact that social exclusion can evoke more individual crisis situations, which in certain circumstances (presence of a religious mission, weakened social structure of the community etc.) can result in larger waves of religious conversions.
20
60%
Lud
|
2011
|
tom 95
225-241
EN
This article aims to reconstruct individual female biography as a way of manifesting late-modern spirituality. The case of contemporary myth creation is an example showing how individual religious experience in a specific social context helps build biographic cohesion and how it transforms into metaphorical narration. The authors used the data collected in Rybno in Mazovia as material for analysis. They analyse the biography of one of the inhabitants of Rybno, a person who is extremely strongly emotionally associated with the local monastic congregation which aims to spread the cult of Divine Mercy. The authors based their analysis on two sources, i.e. a free interview conducted with the woman and the texts of the prayers to the “Most Holy Head of Jesus”.
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