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EN
Comparative studies indicate that innovation activity in Poland is, in general, significantly below that of EU and in North-east it is below that of other parts of Poland. There is peripheral region with traditional structure of production and employment. The North-east remains one of the least innovative regions of Poland and en-larged EU. This is probably the result of the obsolete institutional setting, which doesn’t reflect the requirements of modern international competitiveness. It is the heritage of past times, where creation of the innovation system wasn’t considered a priority factor of economic development. Additionally, Poland is still undergoing intensive modernization of its technology capabilities. The capital and production structure are way outdated and don’t meet the demands of the international trade competition, most of all the non-price competition. That is why it seems that creating conditions for innovation system might become a crucial factors determining the nature and dynamics of development processes as well as influencing the North-east future innovation capability. Creating a new regional innovation structure and transfer of technologies should support modernization processes in companies and the creation of development opportunities for the national economy as a whole and especially in peripheral regions. Those processes will accelerate technological convergence of regions and the economy.
PL
Zdolność do transferu technologii jest jednym ze wskaźników innowacyjności w aspekcie szybszego procesu konwergencji technologicznej. Tym samym szczególnego znaczenia nabiera stworzenie i wykorzystanie warunków do transferu technologii poprzez wzrost nakładów na B+R, rozwój infrastruktury instytucjonalnej oraz stworzenie sieci współpracy obejmującej podmioty regionalnego systemu innowacji (RSI). Zaniechanie tego typu działań, szczególnie w dobie coraz większej otwartości i liberalizacji gospodarczej, może spowolnić zmniejszanie dystansu rozwojowego Podlasia w stosunku do Polski i krajów UE. W opracowaniu przedstawiono obecny stan transferu technologii na Podlasiu oraz możliwości jego rozwoju przez stworzenie odpowiednich warunków organizacyjnych i instytucjonalnych.
EN
Ability to technology transfer is one of the main indicators of innovation in aspect of faster technology convergence. In that case, most important is creating and utilizing technology transfer features via higher expenditures on R&D, development of institutional infrastructure and regional innovation system’s agents. The failure of the technology transfer support, particularly in the period of wider openness and liberalization could bring to a stop the process of technological convergence in Podlasie in relation to Poland and EU regions. This paper shows position of technology transfer in Podlasie and analyzes possibilities to development organizational and institutional conditions for faster technology convergence.
EN
Development of innovation capabilities both in research and applied aspects and improvement of institutional structure are main problems in modern economies. Enterprises couldn't create innovations without more institutional and policies support but they couldn't apply effective innovation solutions without a free market (Prahalad, Krishnan 2010, Von Tunzelmann 1995). That is why it seems that economic system functioning and especially economic policy might become a crucial factors determining the nature and dynamics of innovation development processes. Creating new innovation structure (via economic policy) and transfer of technologies should support modernisation processes in companies and creation of development opportunities for the national economy as a whole [Burton-Jones 2001; Dore, Lazonick, O'Sullivan 1999; Varieties of Capitalism 2001[. Those processes should will accelerate technological convergence of low-developed economies. The main aim of the paper is to describe and interpret two processes: 1) the impact of the institutional changes and market environment on the changes in the circumstances of innovation process, and 2) the role of innovation and technology transfer in the formation of the economic system with the support of economic policy.
PL
Struktura gospodarki jest konsekwencją przebiegu procesów innowacyjnych w przedsiębiorstwach zarówno w aspekcie działalności B+R, wdrożeń, jak i dyfuzji. Procesy innowacyjne wpływają na konkurencyjność technologiczną, wiążąc zmiany udziałów rynkowych w kraju i zagranicą z ich potencjałem technologicznym. Wzrost produktywności wynikający z wyższej innowacyjności, połączony ze wzrostem poziomu inwestycji technologicznych, oddziałuje na zmianę relatywnych, jednostkowych kosztów działalności i wzrost popytu na bardziej zaawansowane technologicznie produkty, w ten sposób decydując o dynamice rozwoju gospodarczego. Dynamiczne zmiany współczesnych systemów gospodarczych determinują konieczność stworzenia warunków instytucjonalnych (polityki gospodarczej), które pozwalają wykorzystać rosnącą rolę rynku oraz ograniczyć bezpośrednie oddziaływanie rządu w procesach gospodarczych. Proces ten przebiega z różnym nasileniem w skali gospodarki światowej, rzutując na kształt systemów innowacyjnych, modyfikując je, jak również tworząc nowe warunki ich działania. Polityka gospodarcza staje się kluczowym instrumentem oddziaływania na procesy innowacyjne i tym samym strukturę technologiczną gospodarek. Działa ona wielokierunkowo i powoduje głębokie zmiany w kierunkach rozwoju innowacyjnego. Jednak nie zawsze są to zmiany pożądane, które prowadzą do wyższej efektywności gospodarczej.
EN
The structure of an economy is a result of innovation processes taking place in enterprises as regards R&D, implementation and diffusion. Innovation processes influence technological competitiveness, linking the changes in domestic and international market shares with their technological capabilities. Increased productivity which results from higher innovation, combined with greater innovation investments, leads to a change in the relative costs of activity and a growth of demand for advanced technological products. All this has an influence on economic development. Dynamic changes of modern economic systems make it necessary to create institutional settings which allow to take advantage of the growing role of the market, as well as to diminish the role of governments in the economy. The intensity of this process varies from one part of the global economy to another, but its impact on innovation systems is unquestionable. Economic policy is becoming the most important factor of innovation processes and, consequently, of technological structure. Its action is multi-directional and capable of radically changing the directions of innovation development. These changes, however, do not always result in greater economic efficiency.
PL
Models of accumulation show that capital goods have equal productivity and using them goods having similar quality can be produced. However, productivity increases together with technological change and the quality of goods gets higher. Capital accumulation influences technological change and technological change creates terms of new accumulation. Capital and the degree of its utilization have direct influence on technological capabilities of economy creating terms of faster economic development. The role of capital in different periods and economic approach evaluated but it was always a key factor of economic growth. Changes in the structure and character of capital directly decide about the efficiency of technological change reflected in the rate of profits and the level of savings, which influences the level of capital accumulation. High-level accumulation economies can pursue growth based on innovation, others have to find sources of capital gain. It is difficult because in a lot of countries a huge part of capital is wasted by inflation and public debt limiting sectors producing tangible goods. The use of innovation processes needs more widely capital resources. It may be accomplished through the reduction of constraints and the costs of raising and holding capital.
EN
The article presents basic conditions of innovative processes in the era of globalization. Technological advance and globalization cause that the way and scope of company activity becomes the knowledge oriented. Similarly, the production structure of the economy is shifted to knowledge oriented branches. Thus, the most important thing for the dynamics of economic development is the use of those factors which guarantee optimal chances of achieving that dynamics regardless of place. On the one hand, it increases the level of innovativeness and competitiveness; on the other hand, it allows to diminish average costs and to improve efficiency.
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