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EN
Global income inequality becomes one of the severe problems in most economies, while government spending financed by public debt can be a good instrument of fiscal policy to reduce this inequality in society. Does institutional quality affect the public debt – income inequality relationship in advanced economies? For the answer, the paper employs the system-GMM and PMG estimator to examine the effects of public debt, institutional quality, and their interaction on income inequality for a group of 30 advanced economies from 2002 through 2020. The paper finds some exciting results. Public debt and institutional quality narrow income inequality, but their interaction term widens. Furthermore, economic growth and unemployment increase income inequality, while education decreases it. The findings suggest some necessary policy implications to narrow income inequality through public debt and institutional quality.
EN
The organization of local government differs between the countries of the European Union, and may involve one, two or three levels of local authority. A characteristic feature is the process of merger of districts and the development of cooperation between districts. There is an increase in the competences and powers assigned to authorities at regional level. The economic position of the local government sector within the system of public finances in EU countries is growing in significance. More than 25% of public revenue in the whole of the EU is made up of local government revenue, and almost 25% of public expenditure is local government sector expenditure. These amounts are equivalent to around 12% of GDP.
EN
The aim of the paper is to present the scale and dynamics of indebtedness related to incomes of all 17 counties in Silesian Voivodeship. On the basis of concentration ratio proposed by K. Kukula, the authors assess changes in incomes' and indebtedness' distribution. The period taken into consideration during the analysis spanned from 2004 to 2007. The authors indicated the usefulness of the concentration ratio for the assessment of indebtedness' stability.
EN
The article presents structure of income of Polish housekeeping according to membership to six socio-economic groups. Research period includes years from 1993 to 2008. Analysis has been carried on base of model of development trend.
EN
The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Portugal. The author's goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Portuguese's pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Portuguese approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of using in Portugal definite part of VAT income for pension system financing.
EN
The immediate inspiration for this contribution is the article by Orsolya Lelkes that appeared here under the title 'Can money buy happiness? An empirical analysis of the relation between income and utility'. She ultimately gave an affirmative answer. This contribution, on the other hand, places the question on a more general plane, disputing some of Lelkes' theoretical conclusions and even conceiving the answer to the basic question differently. In simple terms, money can be said - according to this writer - to buy happiness to a certain extent but not beyond. Nonetheless, it is important to note that Lelkes conducted a notable empirical analysis in the study mentioned, and her work can been considered the first important contribution to Hungarian literature on the economics of happiness. This contribution contains a detailed exposition of the questions advanced and confirmation of the present writer's hypothesis from published empirical data.
EN
The aim of this paper is to examine the determinants of healthcare expenditure in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries. The study covers the period between the years 2000 and 2018. In our research, we implement error correction based on an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, with focus on the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator. Our estimation results revealed that, in combination, health spending, income, medical progress, population ageing and fiscal capacity together form a statistically significant and stable long-term economic relationship. Our analysis indicates that healthcare spending responds to both short-term and long-term income changes. The obtained results support the prevailing view that health should not be considered a luxury good with income elasticity close to unity. In the long term, medical progress and population ageing also significantly influence health spending, whilst these variables prove to be insignificant over the short term. Ultimately, government capacity is positively related to health spending dynamics.
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Content available FLEXIBILITY OF INDIVIDUAL FARMS IN TRANSITION PERIOD
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EN
Based on farm panel data the authors empirically investigate the determinants of Polish farm households' flexibility from 1994 to 2001. They focus on scale flexibility (adjustment in production volume) and scope flexibility (adjustment in product mix). The findings of our fixed-effects regression provide evidence that smaller farms are more flexible, both with regard to scale and scope of production. Farms with a higher share of variable costs tend to be more flexible, while producers who specialized in capital-intensive technologies turned out to be less flexible. Some results differ significantly from the prevailing expectations, in particular we found that farms where a generational succession took place displayed less flexibility over time. Moreover, access to off-farm income and finances (income of household members, loans, government subsidies) is significant, but its influence varies. The results suggests that Polish farmers use various strategies in order to adjust the farm to changing environment, which should be taken into account in the design of supporting policies.
EN
Health is a constituent part of an individual’s human capital. Health is interrelated with other constituent parts of human capital including education and experience determining this capital’s efficiency that is an individual’s income. This study of interrelation between health and future income of an individual resulted in a posteriori estimate of the economic consequences borne by changes in the health of an individual. We paid special attention to building variable-based health indices as their objectivity is crucial to obtaining correct simulation results. The results obtained reveal that good health positively influences future income of an individual.
EN
The local government sector plays an important role in the Polish system of public finance. Local financial economy has certain specific features and is a tool for resource allocation in a market economy. The role of local government sector in the public finance system can be evaluated by analysing its share in the raising and spending of public resources. In 2010, there was a decrease in the share of local government revenue and expenditure in total government revenue and expenditure, as well as in relation to the GDP.
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EN
The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) set of surveys are an important source of comparative statistical data. EU-SILC provides data on income, living conditions, poverty and social exclusion, material deprivation: topics of growing interest to scholars in Europe and elsewhere. EU-SILC surveys are fielded in 29 European countries and coordinated by Eurostat. Although the survey is harmonised, the individual level microdata consists of many dissimilarities across participating countries because of different national conditions, methods of data collection and/or data processing. The aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and limitations of EU-SILC datasets. In addition to discussing the development, methodology and basic pitfalls of EU-SILC, this article focuses on (a) income variables, (b) differences in income among countries and (c) impact of income differentials on data comparability. The main problems of income data may be summarised as follows. 1) Some countries use registers to report income variables while others obtain this information from interviews, and this difference lowers their comparability. 2) The incidence of negative or zero values makes the construction of poverty and inequality measures difficult. 3) There are national differences in the net-to-gross income conversion procedure. This study shows using a four country analysis that the net-to-gross conversion procedure overestimates gross wages in two countries and underestimates it in two others. Notwithstanding these methodological issues, EU-SILC is an important resource for the comparative study of income.
EN
This paper empirically looks at the contribution of labour force education to the speed at which relatively poor economies are converging to the income per capita level of richer economies. While there is a bulk of empirical studies in addressing the links between human capital and economic growth, this paper makes an endeavour to use a less frequently used proxy for human capital, i.e. the education of the labour force at various levels and investigates whether we can explain cross-country variation in economic growth with variation in labour force education. Using the data of EU-26 countries in the period (1995 – 2009) and based on a three-period data and five-year interval non-overlapping panel, the paper finds that the labour force education helps countries to grow at a faster rate.
EN
Th e objective of this article is familiarisation with the issues relating to agricultural development in Poland and its perspectives for the future. A trial to assess the development of the Polish agricultural areas has been made five years after the accession to the European Union. The analysis has been performed on the basis of the data from Economical Accounts for Agriculture (EAA), the Central Statistical Office (GUS) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MRiRW). Chosen data on income and subsidies in the farm sector in Poland between 2003 and 2008 have been quoted. The analysis of the statistical data shows that farmers’ income after the Poland’s accession to the EU has risen nearly twice but the financial situation of people living in the agricultural areas is still very diversified. Their income has increased thanks to the EU direct subsidies. The integration between Poland and the European Union has created additional opportunities for growth in the food and agriculture sector. For five years of the Polish membership in the EU the export of farm and food products has nearly tripled.
EN
In Slovak economy a structure of income (on macro-level) has formed, which is far from the usual income structure in advanced economies. The wage share significantly lagged (and declined further). The wages were largely substituted by mixed income of self-employed persons. This kind of income restructuring is associated with risks for some segments of public finance (especially for sectors financed from social contributions). While the economic performance level converged gradually to the level of most advanced economies, the income structure was more on the path of divergence. Changes in the income structure were driven by shifts in sectorial composition of the economy (e.g. expansion of branches with low wage share), but also by technological progress within sectors and branches (e.g. growth of capital intensity).
EN
The article is devoted to topical issues of raising utility tariffs and tax revenues, as one of the main filler budget of Ukraine. The article analyzes the problem of tax avoidance, studied the causes of "black" salaries and the consequences for workers and the employer at payment of of such salaries, analyzes the problems of legalization of wages in context of permanent economic and political changes. It is proved that enterprises of different ownership forms, evading existing laws, develop various schemes of payment of wages "in envelopes", or "black" wages. Defining characteristics of "black" cash payments to employees and the scheme of "black" wages, benefits and drawbacks of its shadowing. It is proved that raising the minimum wage contributes to a positive increase in the official part of the wages of unscrupulous employers. Defined ways to increase the interest of employers in salary legalization.
EN
This paper examines the long-run (co-integrating) relationship between real consumption, real disposable income, real net financial wealth, real housing wealth, and uncertainties in future income (income uncertainty) and the rate of return on accumulated financial wealth (capital uncertainty) for a panel of 12 euro area countries. Using proxies for the unobservable housing wealth and income and capital uncertainty, we show that such a relationship does exist, but it is not homogenous for the euro area as a whole. Real disposable income and real net financial wealth are the main determinants of real consumption for the PIIGS (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece, and Spain) and non-PIIGS (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Slovenia) euro areas. Income and capital uncertainties are negatively associated with real consumption, but only in the PIIGS euro area.
EN
This paper considers the importance of the automobile industry in the global economic environment and sheds additional insight on the forecasting of passenger car sales. The study uses data from the automotive sectors in 38 countries, which account for more than 80% of passenger cars in use worldwide for testing the accuracy of a general framework that uses income and other country-specific factors to forecast passenger cars sales for short- and mid-term periods. The results indicate that this framework can be applied to a wide range markets, but its performance is primarily influenced by income levels in these markets. Tested and discussed is not only income as the main predictor of sales, but also the effects of other factors such as vehicle ownership level on passenger car sales projections. Income is shown to play both a determining role and a moderating role that affects other variables’ impact on passenger car sales.
EN
This paper uses the national EU-SILC 2013 data to analyse the impact of the distribution of personal income between partners on reported financial well-being of couples in the Czech Republic. It focuses on partners in two life stages: couples raising children and couples with empty nests. On average, women contribute substantially less to the household budget than men and their financial satisfaction is slightly lower. Financial satisfaction of partners with children is not influenced by who brings the income. In a childless household, the higher woman’s contribution, the lower is man’s satisfaction with the financial situation relatively to hers.
EN
The presented paper aims to discuss the measurement of inclusive growth, using an abstraction, through which the inclusive growth is approximated as the pro-poor growth. Furthermore, we aim to provide empirical evidence from the Slovak Republic. The analysis examines whether the economic growth achieved in the Slovak Republic during the time period from 2004 to 2009 had decreased the inequality of the income distribution of the households or not. During the analysis the Headcount index, the Poverty gap index and the Severity of poverty index are calculated and evaluated. The paper also provides estimation of the actual income distributions through the theoretical distributions, for the examined years. The results show rather negative relationship between growth and the decrease of income inequality.
EN
The article shows the need to assess a capital structure in a discount rate within income business valuation consistently with the financial plan and the final business value. It analyses mistakes resulting from simplified estimates of a capital structure. The article also points out importance of a choice of the appropriate reagent function for equity cost calculation according to a firm’s leverage and it presents proposals for modification of the leveraged beta function and for analytical calculation of equity cost that provide the same firm’s value as the direct recalculation of equity cost by the iterative method.
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