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Neoplasms of the head and neck stands for 6th most common malignant neoplasms in terms of morbidity in Poland. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the complete resection and presence of the lymphatic metastases, detection of which might not be possible at the moment of diagnosis. Routine performance of the elective neck dissection among patients without lymphadenopathy (cN0) may favour the occurrence of surgical complication and seems to be too invasive procedure, particularly in group with non-advanced tumours (cT1-2). The sentinel lymph node biopsy is diagnostic procedure, which allows to exclude presence of metastases in nodes draining lymph directly from primary tumour. This technique let for a limitation of the extent of the procedure and the evaluation of the lymphatic tissue under the microscope in order to exclude presence of neoplastic cells. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly use among patients with malignant melanoma of the skin and breast cancer. Multiple studies prove its usefulness during treatment of patients with head and neck cancer.
Peripheral T cells are in G0 phase and do not proliferate. When they encounter an antigen, they enter the cell cycle and proliferate in order to initiate an active immune response. Here, we have determined the first two cell cycle times of a leading population of CD4+ T cells stimulated by PMA plus ionomycin in vitro. The first cell cycle began around 10 h after stimulation and took approximately 16 h. Surprisingly, the second cell cycle was extremely rapid and required only 6 h. T cells might have a unique regulatory mechanism to compensate for the shortage of the gap phases in cell cycle progression. This unique feature might be a basis for a quick immune response against pathogens, as it maximizes the rate of proliferation.
We reported a 57 year old woman treated for 2 years because of pustulosis plantaris (periodic exacerbations and remissions). In July 2013 she reported to the Outpatient Surgery because of a tumor in the left groin area. The biopsy revealed: metastases melanomatosis in lymphonodus. The patients was in October at the surgical removal of lymph nodes from left groin area (lymphadenectomy groin - ilio - obturatorii right). Full diagnostic was carried out and searching of of primary foci to no results. In the patient revealed the presence of BRAF and she was qualified to study of drug vemurafenib.
The intranodal lymph pathways of lymph nodes connected with reproductive organs were studied in 30 pigs, both histologically and by injecting colloidal carbon particles. These lymph nodes were single or composed independently of their localization: 1) in vascular subovarian plexus (VSP) and 2) in paraaortal areas. There were 7-11 single normal lymph nodes and 5-8 single hemal lymph nodes distributed in both mentioned regions. All studied animals possessed in the VSP area large composed lymph nodes with 5-7 valves connected to various reproductive organs and 2-3 composed lymph nodes in the paraaortal area. Afferent lymphatics (AF) entered the single nodes at the protrusion poles, whereas efferent lymphatics (EF) with blood vessels entered in the hilus. In the composed nodes all types of lymphatic and blood vessels were directly connected to the deep hilus on the dorsal side. The remaining reproductive organs in all examined pigs had a connection with either the central composed nodes and/or others composed or single node(s) from the paraaortal area.
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