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Content available remote Teacher Role Model and Students' Physical Activity
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Introduction. Physical activity is an important factor in health risk prevention, which improves the quality of life, as well as promotes both physical and mental health preservation [1, 2]. Each year, the lack of physical activity causes death of 600,000 people in Europe - approximately 6% of the total population [3]. Despite the significant number of studies that have been conducted on students' physical activity, it is also being claimed that studies on the teenage group are essential yet scarce, and the results are ambiguous [4]. This confirms the need for more such studies in order to better determine the significant factors in the promotion of students' physical activity. Material and methods. 339 students aged 11 to 19 participated in the collection of data base: 147 boys and 192 girls. Average age of participants was: 14.6 years. 75 students aged 14-19 years (33 girls and 42 boys) were involved in the pedagogical experiment. The average age of the participants was 16-19 years in School 1 (11 girls and 18 boys), and 14-17 years in School 2 (19 girls and 27 boys). Average age of participants was: 16.3 years. Three sports teachers participated in the pedagogical experiment as well. During the course of the experiment, teachers developed a model of pedagogical interaction in physical education classes. At each school the experiment lasted for 14 weeks. In both schools physical education classes were held twice a week. Results. Based on factor analysis, a model of pedagogical interactions promoting physical activity of students was developed. According to the results of the physical activity habits test (inventory) we can conclude that students have experienced positive and statistically significant changes in their physical activity. The boys were considerably more active during classes where the teacher was present as a participant of physical activities. Conclusions. Teachers and students remark that the applied contents of the pedagogical interaction model have positive effects on the interaction between students and teachers and stimulate physical activity of students.
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Background: Disadvantageous tendencies bound with a growing distance between the somatic development and motor condition of children and youth raise well understood anxiety, as these phenomena endanger health and fitness of future generations. The aim of this work is to verify if the above-mentioned phenomenon may be referred to youth groups for whom physical activity and motor development are important elements of everyday life. Material/Methods: Between 1983 and 2009 data on a total of 7,663 men and 7,368 women from Poznan AWF (University School of Physical Education) were collected annually at the same time each year. Information was collected on the body height and mass, and the vertical jump test. The maximum anaerobic work was calculated. Results: In both men and women there was a tendency for a negative association between body dimensions and fitness. A correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between body height and mass, directly proportional tendencies, at p<0.05 significance level, and better performance on the vertical jump test associated with higher maximum anaerobic work. Conclusions: Summing up, it is possible to suppose that along with stabilization of the economic situation of the state one should expect maintaining the progress of the secular trend in the case of somatic features; unfortunately, at the same time we will probably observe a slump in motor development.
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Content available Endometrial cancer and physical activity
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Physical activity (PA) is an important modifiable risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC). PA has been studied using diverse measures including metabolic equivalent of task MET, duration, frequency and subjective levels, but for practical reasons most of epidemiological studies use questionnaires rather than objective measures to document PA. Moderate-intense daily PA has a protective effect and have a 20-40% reduced risk of EC. In this rewiev complex and variable behaviour, and the ability of epidemiological studies to determine the relationship between PA and EC has been discussed.
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Physical activity is an important element in psychophysical development of any human, including children and young people. Rational and regular participation in vigorous physical activity contributes to improvement and maintaining good health status. It also affects mood of a person and determinesthe quality of his or her life. The aim of the paper is to determine the role of school in the context of the factors that stimulate physical activity among young people at the age of 16 to 20 years. The paper has a literature-based and empirical character. The basic research methodologies adopted in the study included analysis of subject literature, diagnostic survey using questionnaire technique, and a statistical method. The questionnaire survey was carried out in 2012-2013 in secondary schools in the region of the Greater Poland Voivodeship in Poland in a group of 850 students. The study demonstrated that young people are physically active and participate in different forms of sport and recreation. However, one third of the young people studied spend their leisure time in a passive manner. They are not involved in any physical activity and spend their leisure time playing computer games, watching the TV, socializing, reading books and magazines and listening to the music. It should be noted that, in this context, the role of physical education teachers and school is critical.
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International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) has become one of the world's most valuable tools for measuring physical activity in different groups or populations.The relationship between regular, moderate-intensity physical activity and health parameters including physical fitness and aerobic capacity has been clearly proven by numerous investigations throughout the world.The aim of the present study was to determine the magnitude of differences in absolute & relative (lxmin-1, mlxkg-1xmin-1) VO2 max, by using the Astrand-Ryhming normogram in students aged 19 to 24 years, depending on their weekly energy expenditure (METminxweek-1), as diagnosed with IPAQ.The significance of differences in aerobic capacity between highly and moderately active students was evaluated. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated as a measure of the strength of the correlation between the above parameters in female and male groups.VO2 max was significantly higher in male and female participants, with a high level of physical activity, as determined through IPAQ criteria.
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Content available remote Nordic Walking - A New Form of Adapted Physical Activity (A Literature Review)
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Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze scientific evidence on the effects that Nordic Walking (NW) has on the human body. Basic procedures. A comprehensive search of computer databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus) was conducted to identify relevant English and Polish studies on NW that were published from 1995 to 2009 and based on scientific research. Main findings. A total of 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies (12) discussed physiological issues, eleven studies were dedicated to NW as a form of rehabilitation (including one case study), and three studies focused on biomechanical issues present in NW. Conclusions. Not all of the widely promoted benefits of NW were confirmed in the results of the found scientific studies. Often analyzed issues did not provide sufficient explanation. There is a large discrepancy in the results of physiological responses during NW in a variety of conditions (on a treadmill with/without grade; field - uphill/downhill/horizontal level terrain). The results of studies analyzing the effects of NW training as a form of rehabilitation particularly in the areas of cardiology confirmed the positive aspects of including NW towards a patient's rehabilitation after acute coronary syndrome, with intermittent claudication, and after coronary artery disease, or after myocardial infarction. Contrary to popular belief and previously done studies, recent research has shown that NW does not reduce the loading of the knee joint.
EN
There is a growing understanding that psychiatric treatment is more than psychotherapy and medication, and that people themselves can be active in preventing and handling mental health problems. This brings non-medical solutions into play. Physical activity (in terms of exercise, sport, and fitness) becomes an important contribution in this particular context. The perceived mental and physical benefits of physical activity (both preventative and therapeutic) for people experiencing mental health problems are well documented. Typically, this kind of research focuses narrowly on “size of effect” or “most successful type of intervention” or “exercise versus other treatment.” Less research has explored the lived experience of physical activity and the meaning and relevance it has for individuals in their everyday lives. This article suggests that sport and exercise can play a valuable role in and contribute to the recovery process for young people with mental health problems. Results from an evaluation study of a developmental project in Denmark shows how physical activity affects a person‟s lived experiences, relationships, and pursuits. The findings is discussed in relation to the concept of recovery, especially focusing on exercise as a form of self-care strategy, as an opportunity to create social relationships, and as a way to become part of a meaningful social activity.
EN
Studies indicate that physical activity has a positive effect both physiologically and socially for psychologically ill and vulnerable people, and that this effect is the same or greater for psychologically well-functioning people. In spite of this, treatment sites often hesitate to include sports and physical activity as part of the treatment offered. This article argues that there is a strong correlation between the body and mind, but from a different point of view than that adopted by the prevalent scientific research in the field. Specifically, I elucidate how the mind-body relationship and self-consciousness are influenced by physical activity for people with schizophrenia, and argue that symptoms are relieved as a result of physical activity. Consciousness has a bodily component that, for people with schizophrenia, is less well-integrated in the consciousness than for psychologically well-functioning people, and sports and physical activity can help facilitate this integration. My argument is based partly on phenomenological concepts and partly on an empirical research project concerning physical activity for people with schizophrenia. The conclusion is that their level of functioning and self-assessed quality of life increased markedly through physical activity. The purpose of the present article is thus partly to qualify the treatment chosen for people with schizophrenia, and partly to qualify the theoretical discussion concerning the role played by the body and physical activity in connection with consciousness and relief.
EN
Quality of life (QOL) is associated with factors such as health, physical functioning, life satisfaction, a sense of happiness, and others. In case of disabled people, much attention is paid to their QOL rather than only the improvement of physiological variables. In a group of blind and visually impaired people, the effect of physical activity (PA) on the socialization process, the ability to explore own personality traits, developing creativity, and more motivation and desire to overcome the difficulties associated with visual impairment were observed. The study involved 53 people: visually impaired (NT) sedentary lifestyle people (n=18; 51±12 years) and visually impaired tandem cycling athletes (N) (n=17; 42±13 years). Properly sighted people (P) (n=18; 38±12 years) were partners in tandem with visually impaired athletes. To determine the level of PA, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The WHO-Quality of Life (WHO-QOL-BREF), the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25, version 2000), and the Retina AMD Poland Association questionnaire were used to assess QOL. In visually impaired athletes, significantly greater PA with moderate intensity, moving by bike, and energy expenditure for vigorous recreational exercise and sport in leisuretime was found. Sedentary lifestyle people mainly participated in moderate physical activity around the house. Significant greater satisfaction with health was observed in the case of visually impaired athletes in comparison with NT. All disabled groups rarely had negative feelings such as despair, depression, and anxiety. Moderate correlations between variables according to physical activity and quality of life in all participants were observed. The meaningfulness of life and life satisfaction also depended on cycling training and moderate physical activity around the house. The obtained data indicate that all available forms of regular PA in visually impaired people could have a beneficial effect on their quality of life.
EN
Introduction. The importance of socio-economic factors in differentiating the physical activities of children and teenagers keeps changing. That is why the goal of this research was to identify certain social variables amongst those listed most often which differentiate the level of targeted physical activity of urban children and youths from the Bialskie district. Material and methods. The research was conducted on 1.084 students between the ages of 10 and 18. Three age groups were chosen: 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 16 to 18. Information about the attendance of respondents in Physical Education classes and structured extra-curricular sport activities, as well as preferred forms of physical activities were collected via a diagnostic survey. The same method was used in the assessment of the socio-economic status of the families of the respondents. The relations between attendance in extra-curricular sports activities and socio-economic factors was assessed by a multifactoral logistic regression model, and the statistical relevance of the differences was calculated by the Wald test. Results. Attendance in structured extra-curricular physical activity depended mostly on income per family member. In the case of type of work performed by parents, the attendance rate in both boys and girls was higher if the parents performed intellectual work. Parents' education and number of children in the family did not have a high influence on the attendance of respondents in structured extra-curricular sport activities. Conclusions. Increasing disproportions in societal prosperity can be an important factor limiting the attendance of the poorest group of children and youths in structured physical activities. The lack of influence on physical activity of such socio-economic variables as parents' education and the number of children in the family can be connected with the change of meaning of those factors in modern society (depreciation of the importance of higher education, decreased fertility).
EN
Introduction. In the face of the more and more general threat with civilization diseases the promotion of healthy lifestyle should be one of main activities of educational and medical institutions. Aim. The aim of the work was comparison of chosen elements of healthy lifestyle between the young physically active women and non-sports ones. Material and methods. The survey was carried out on 156 women aged 18-35 years, divided into two groups. Persons physically active were classified into Group 1 (n=72), whereas into Group 2 - non-active ones (n=84). The investigative tool was the Inventory of Health-Related Behaviours by Juczyński (where health-related behaviours were rated in four categories: proper nutrition habits, prophylaxis behaviours, and positive attitude and health practices). Differences between the data were qualified with the t-student test for independent groups; level p≤0.05 was accepted as of minimum significance. Results. The results show that physically active persons pay greater attention to healthy lifestyle than non-sports people. The general indicator of health-related behaviours was noticeably higher in Group 1 (p=0.007). Greatest differences (p=0.008) were noted within the range of nutritional habits, and the least significant ones - in positive attitude (p=0.546). Conclusion. The positive influence of the physical activity on other aspects of the healthy lifestyle has been proven. It seems legitimate to promote physical activity among women of every age
EN
It seems to be common sense, that hypomobility is an essential cause for overweight and adiposity. As a consequence, physical activity usually is recommended against adiposity. In literature doubts, based on empirical studies, could be found, that the lamentations about an unfit and by this fat youth seems to be rather a sociological phenomenon of an imaginary crisis than an empirically based fact.Especially concerning young people in Germany, physical inactivity is accused to be an important cause of adiposity. Therefore we are interested in the spontaneous intensity of physical activity of pupils during their physical education and in leisure time in relation to their body mass index.Pupils (10-19 y old, 15 forms) were observed during their physical education systematically regarding quantitative and qualitative items. Additionally the intensity of physical and sporting activities in leisure time were investigated by questionnaire. The results show, that the rate of underweight was higher than of adiposity in the researched group. Between the intensity of physical activity in physical education and in leisure related to the deviations of normal weight (BMI) no relevant correlations could be stated.Discussing these results, the hypotheses: Physical inactivity is a central cause of adiposity and physical activity is a very good action against adiposity seems to be too simple. Eating behaviour, genetic disposition, psychological factors etc. obviously are very relevant, too. This must be considered in public recommendations against adiposity as well as the risks of uncontrolled physical activities for joints, bones and muscles especially in case of overweight.
EN
The problems of physical recreation as a means of improving the quality of human life is discussed. It is concluded that Nordic walking as a means of motor activity contributes to the improvement of the functional status of people of different ages, recuperation by changing activities. In accordance motor recreation has specific features which include the following: lack of enforcement activities; the choice of means, time and place of practice; the choice of forms and methods of physical recreation.
EN
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between the profile of readiness to change and pro-health behaviours as well as physical activity among students of physical education and other teaching specialisation. The study was carried out among a randomly selected group of teaching specialisation students (464 females and 143 males). In the research, the following were applied: Inventory of Pro-health Behaviours by Z. Juczyński, the IPAQ and the Readiness to Change Questionnaire. Diversification in pro-health behaviours, level of physical activity and selected features of readiness to change among students of teaching specialisations was demonstrated. In the general population, along with the increase in selfconfidence, passion and optimism, the level of health pro-behaviours also increased. Regardless of the type of studies, there were significant positive correlations between the level of physical activity and the degree of passion, optimism and boldness. Among students of other teaching specialisations (apart from physical education), a positive relationship was also noted between physical activity and creativity. Among the students of teaching specialisations, a correlation was demonstrated between the level of pro-health behaviours and physical activity as well as the degree of selected features constituting readiness to change.
EN
Introduction: Proper nutrition and physical activity are very important elements in the proper functioning and development of children. The lack of daily, systematic physical effort in younger and younger age groups is a public health problem. Purpose: To evaluate the nutrition and physical activity of children attending primary school. Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 707 pupils form randomly selected elementary schools using the authors’ own questionnaire in the school year 2013/2014. The questionnaire included questions on selected dietary habits and physical activity as well as the socio-economic conditions of the families. Results: Among the studied children, 88.6% consumed 4 or 5 meals a day. There was a statistically significant relationship between the number of meals consumed and the age of the children. Breakfast was consumed by 86.4% of children, more often residents of the city than the village (88.0% vs. 81.7%, p <0.05). Daily consum-ption of second breakfast was declared by 71.5% of boys and 74.2% of girls. The vast majority of the studied students (86.8%) have always taken part in physical education classes. Outdoor leisure time was declared by 75% of the surveyed children. Rural students showed greater involvement in outdoor activities than students from the city (86.1% vs. 70.2%, p <0.001). A total of 62.2% of boys and 51.8% of girls (p <0.05) participated in sports activities. Conclusions: Inappropriate nutrition and lack of physical activity affected both girls and boys, and the abnormalities were dependent on where they lived and were age-related.
PL
Wstęp: Około 80% populacji w wieku poprodukcyjnym miewa problemy zdrowotne ze strony różnych narządów. Dolegliwości te nasilają się wraz z wiekiem, kiedy to człowiek ulega bradykinezji, pojawia się lęk przed podejmowaniem aktywności fizycznej, a w konsekwencji nadwaga, cukrzyca, choroby układu krążenia i inne schorzenia ustrojowe. Postanowiono zbadać, czy osoby posiadające psa, cechują się lepszym samopoczuciem oraz mniejszymi dolegliwościami bólowymi kręgosłupa w porównaniu z osobami nieposiadającymi psa. Materiał i metody: W badaniach wzięło udział 100 osób w wieku od 50 do 81 lat, mieszkających w Piekarach Śląskich, będących na emeryturze lub rencie, nie pracujących zawodowo, deklarujących swój stan zdrowia jako dobry, niezgłaszających żadnych chorób przewlekłych. Osoby uczestniczące w badaniach zostały poproszone o wypełnienie kwestionariusza ankiety, w którym zapytano o płeć, wiek oraz o własną ocenę samopoczucia. Pacjent zaznaczał na osi miejsce, które najbardziej odpowiadało jego odczuciom. Wartość 0% odpowiadała ocenie samopoczucia na najgorszym do wyobrażenia poziomie, zaś wartość 100%, odpowiadała sytuacji idealnej. Kolejnym obszarem badania było natężenie dolegliwości bólowych zlokalizowanych w szyjnym i lędźwiowym odcinku kręgosłupa, w oparciu o kwestionariusz Oswestry. Wnioski: Osoby posiadającej psa wskazały na lepsze samopoczucie niż osoby nieposiadające psa. W grupie osób posiadających psa stwierdzono niższe natężenie dolegliwości bólowych lędźwiowego odcinka kręgosłupa w porównaniu z osobami nie posiadającymi psa.
EN
Introduction: About 80% of the population of post-working age experience various organ-related health problems. These ailments tend to intensify with age when a person develops bradykinesia and the fear of taking up physical activity appears, which in consequence leads to weight gain, diabetes, cardiovascular system diseases and other systemic diseases. It was decided to evaluate if it is characteristic for people who own dogs to be in a better state of well-being and experience less spine pain in comparison to people who do not own dogs. Material and methods: The study involved 100 people ranging in age from 50 to 81 years living in Piekary Sląskie, retired or on a disability benefit, not working professionally, declared to be in good health, and reporting no chronic diseases. Those who took part in the research were asked to complete a questionnaire in which the respondents were asked to state their gender, age and to make a personal evaluation of their general state of well-being. The patients were to mark on an axis the point which most closely corresponded to their own assessments. The value of 0% represented the worst possible assessment of their general state of well-being, while 100% represented the ideal situation. Another area of the research concerned the intensification of cervical and lumbar spine pain and was evaluated by means of the Oswestry Disability Index. Conclusions : People who own dogs showed to be in a better state of well-being than people who do not have dogs. In the group of people who owned dogs, a lower intensification of lumbar spine pain was observed, in comparison to people who do not have dogs.
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The aim of the article is to present and describe how to counteract threats to social security through sport. The theoretical method of analysis and criticism of the literature was used in the research work. The conducted research allowed to determine that mainly trainers and pedagogues play an important role in the prevention of risky behavior. The review of the literature allowed to conclude that the research work is based primarily on surveys and currently only a few researchers conduct research on combating social security threats through physical activity. In connection with the above, it is necessary to continue research in this direction, using such research methods as the individual case method.
EN
The article presents data on the current state of health, physical preparedness, motor activity of students in non-sports profile higher education establishments. It was found that low levels of physical condition of students is determined by a number of factors, among which, the lack of their motor activity, as well as non-rational approaches of the governing bodies and the administration of some higher educational establishments to organizing teaching and extracurricular physical training of future specialists are the major ones. It contains data relative to the main functions of motor activity. The basic provisions of the letter of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine of 09.25.2015 №1 / 9–454 “Regarding the organization of physical education in higher education”.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano aktualne dane dotyczące stanu zdrowia, przygotowania fizycznego, aktywności ruchowej studentów szkół wyższych o profilu nie-sportowym. Stwierdzono, że niski poziom warunków fizycznych studentów określony jest przez grupę czynników, wśród których główną rolę odgrywają brak aktywności ruchowej oraz nieracjonalne podejście ciał zarządzających i administracji niektórych instytucji szkolnictwa wyższego do organizacji nauczania i dodatkowych zajęć treningowych dla przyszłych specjalistów. W artykule zawarto dane dotyczące głównych funkcji aktywności ruchowej oraz podstawowe postanowienia zawarte w zaleceniach Ministerstwa Edukacji i Nauki Ukrainy z dnia 25.09.2015, nr 1/9-454 „W związku z organizacją wychowania fizycznego w szkolnictwie wyższym”.
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