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1
Content available remote Poles' Economic Migration after the EU Enlargement
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Many Poles have emigrated to the European Union countries to work. In years 2004-2007, total volume of such migration is estimated at 1860 thousand people, mainly to the Great Britain, Germany, and Ireland. Mass emigration causes a number of demographic and economic problems in Poland, in that also in the labour market. Because of approaching recession in the western countries returning and an increase in the unemployment should be expected.
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The term flexicurity redefines the relationship between employers and employees in the labour market. Flexicurity attempts to strike a balance between the flexibility of employment and the competitiveness of en¬trepreneurs. Denmark and the Netherlands, which have successfully applied flexicurity solutions, are looked up to when it comes to the implementation of these solutions. Long before the economic crisis and down¬turn, flexicurity solutions had proven to be an effective tool to maintain the lowest levels of unemployment among the EU countries. The article presents the results of research on the relationships between the unemployment rate and the flexibility of labour market during the period of the economic crisis and downturn after 2007.
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The article presents results of the Labour Force Survey module survey “Entry of young person into the labour market in 2009”. It contains information enabling the assessment of the impact of the young people’s educational level on their job, expectations regarding the first job and their status on the labour market. The survey was conducted by the Central Statistical Office in the 2nd quarter of 2009 and provided data on the employment situation of the population aged 15-34.
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Content available remote Labour Market in Health Sector - Neglected Field of Governance
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According to the thesis stated in the article, the labour market of the health sector is the analytically neglected area, which influences the weaknesses of the process of labour resources managing and, as a consequence, the lower efficiency of functioning in relation to the possible level. Moreover, this kind of weakness in the health sector management increases the danger of maintaining the serious unbalance between the labour supply and the labour demand. Such an unbalance is already present and is increasing; additionally, it has a global character. The lack of specialists in the medical professions is estimated globally at around 4,3 mln employed. Simultaneously, there is a huge increase of needs on the demand side. The main factor of increase of health needs - the increase of income - is nowadays intensified by the demographic and epidemiological changes, connected mainly with the population aging process. It is stressed in the article that in order to fight efficiently the shrinking of labour resources of medical professions, one should undertake immediate actions in the field of education, improvement of working conditions and wages of doctors and nurses, and introduce the institution of social dialogue into the current system of collective bargaining in Poland.
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Content available remote Cooperation between Labour Offices and Employment Agencies
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In the presented article the results of research on cooperation between the county labour offices and employment agencies were shown. The research was conducted in 2007 as a part of a project 'The potential and perspectives of cooperation between the employment agencies and public employment services', which was co-funded with resources form the European Social Fund. Up-to-date fields of cooperation and its frequency were covered in the analysis. The public service staff were asked their opinions about continuing the cooperation in the future. If a situation where there was no cooperation with the employment agencies occurred, the crucial thing was to evaluate the reasons of such a state.
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The paper compares a set of health and labour market outcomes for three populations from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We analyse differences between the Polish aged 50+ and the respective German population divided into those who prior to the unification in 1989 lived in the East and West Germany. In terms of most analysed outcomes we find a 'West-East gradient' with the most favourable statistics found for the west German population and the worst for Poland. The unfavourable situation on the labour market in Poland goes along poor health and lifestyle outcomes on most measures, and it seems that employment and health-related policies should be designed in combination to address the problems. The East–West divide in Germany still seems to present a policy challenge. We find important differences in such outcomes as labour market arrangements and such health outcomes as incidence of high blood pressure and diabetes. The East–West gradient is also found in the so-called underused capacity, i.e. the proportion of healthy individuals aged 50-65 who are not employed. The main factor behind this in Poland is retirement, while the difference in Germany is largely caused by higher levels of unemployment in the east.
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On today's labour market, recruitment tendencies show a somewhat decreased interest in workforce with specialised knowledge, while there seems to be a strong need for people who are ready to acquire new knowledge, skills and competencies. In the information age, digital and information literacy have become essential competencies. The basics of information literacy can be acquired by distance learning or at special courses organised by libraries. During the timeframe of the current research, part-time students of the Szombathely Teachers' Training College acquired the basics of research methodology via a distance learning course of 12 hours. The knowledge acquired at the course was then transformed into competencies doing practical exercises at the college library. The experiences of this project as well as outcomes of other user education courses at public libraries were examined by tests and questionnaires. The findings showed that the applied method successfully contributed to the development of the information literacy competencies of the participants. However, it was also shown that even when choosing the downloadable electronic format, participants printed it out prior to learning.
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The authors claim that poverty existed in the world since time immemorial. Recently however, we can observe the growing differentiation in Western societies: there are sparse groups with very high income and multiplicity of the 'new poor' - the unemployed as well as these who are employed in a second-rate, low-paid jobs. The situation on this difficult labour market is further worsened by the influx of migrants as the army of the unemployed in-waiting. The increase in the number of the new poor in the globalizing world poses new problems for the politicians. Novel ideas are needed to ameliorate both the economic condition of the Third World countries - the place of origin of many among the new poor, as well as the situation of the new poor (called sometimes the Fourth World) in the First World countries..
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This paper aims to analyse the changing labour market in the textile and clothing sector and to predict the future prospects of the industry’s professionals on the regional labour market. The author reviews the current and forecasted (for 2025) supply and demand for the qualifications and skills of the graduates from the region’s vocational schools specialising in textiles and clothing.
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The principal aim of this paper is to determine which inputs affect active labour market policy expenditure of nine OECD countries. After the theoretical insight, we have conducted an empirical analysis using data from 2000 to 2013 and applied the dynamic Arellano-Bond panel data model. We checked the robustness of our results by revising our dynamic Arellano-Bond model (by excluding correlated and non-significant variables) and comparing the results with the fixed-effects and random-effects data estimation model. Our results show that, from the practical standpoint, the expenditure on active labour market policy measures in the previous year has had the strongest impact on the expenditure in the following period. We have noticed a change in factors that influence the expenditure from the pre-crisis to the post-crisis period. General economic indicators (such as GDP) and labour market indicators play more important role in times of the economic crisis.
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The problem of high unemployment has stigmatized the Slovak labour market for several decades. Policy makers have espoused ambitions to solve this problem but with varyingly small degrees of success. One of the measures of labour market policy can be direct financial support directed at job creation for the unemployed. This article aims to analyse and develop a procedure useful for estimating the effective amount of state subsidies for such kinds of job creation policy. The results indicate that the proposed methodology could be a useful tool to evaluate the upper limit of subsidies.
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This article focuses on the situation of parents of children aged 0-7 in the Czech labour market according to findings from the Labour Force Survey in 2007. The author discusses the model of changes to the economic position of parents typical for the Czech Republic and shows that mainly mothers are affected by the interruption to labour market participation. They found a strong homogeneity of preferences for home care until a child reaches the age of 3, a fact that could also be influenced by structural/institutional conditions. Working mothers of smaller children are significantly at risk of unemployment and at risk of being required to work on a fixed-term contract, and they have a smaller chance of reaching management positions. Fathers are not affected as much by parenthood, but they are more at risk of having to working long hours and evenings. Some of the results (especially on mothers' unemployment) require further research and political attention.
13
Content available remote Pojęcie grywalizacji wobec zjawisk związanych z rynkiem pracy
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Employers look for talented people who are not afraid of challenges. Job advertisements and the recruitment process constitute a kind of game in which the prize is the job. Through a variety of tasks and the way the interview is conducted, recruiters try to find a person who meets all of their expectations. It is for the candidate to decide how to engage in this challenge. It also happens that the applicant creates the rules of the game to catch the attention of the employer and be remembered. This paper is an attempt to answer the question if and how the concept of gamification may be appropriate to describe this process.
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Effects of recession on the structure of employment have been different in each phase of recession (and revival after the recession). It seems likely correct the assumption of our earlier analysis that in the initial phase of the recession was already noticeable structural changes in employment, but they were far from its final form. In later stages, the shape and intensity of structural changes has changed significantly. Recession strengthened the position of highest-educated workers, penalizing the segment of youngest workers, in their early stage have necessitated further expansion of self-employment to the prejudice of dependent work. Recession in some cases reinforced the structural changes in employment, which were already present even before the recession (expansion of self-employment, share increase of the tertiary educated employed persons), in other cases, the recession has brought new structural changes (increase in the proportion of part-time work). Seem to be more important the cases, when the recession reinforced the structural changes that were in milder form present even before the recession. The recession has added new momentum to them.
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The study deals with the effects of labour-market institutions and rigidities on the rate of unemployment, analysing four institutions: unemployment benefit, the trade unions, taxation, and dismissal constraints. The pay model presented is a version of those associated with Pissarides. An attempt is made with this to express numerically the individual and compound effects of the institutions on the unemployment rate, and to gauge how much they influence the process of accommodation that follows shocks. The results show that taxes and dismissal constraints do not increase the rate of unemployment significantly; the effect of them becomes significant only when coupled with high unemployment benefit. A greater contribution to high unemployment is made by the bargaining power of the unions and the scale of unemployment benefit, but these effects can be ameliorated only by factors that do not feature in the model. The constraints on dismissal included in the model slow the reaction to the productivity shock, but the extent of this is not significant.
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One of the decisive factors behind satisfaction (subjective welfare) is income mobility. Individuals usually judge change in their income position in terms of change in relative position, not in level of income. So the study analyses in the main the effect on satisfaction exerted in Hungary by objective and subjective indices of relative income mobility, in the 2000-2002 period, when the rate of growth in real incomes was exceptionally high. The findings confirm that in upwardly mobile families with increasing incomes in the period examined, the rise in relative income position did not bring added satisfaction: those whose relative position had improved were less satisfied than their attained income level would warrant. This situation pertains primarily because of uncertainty about the objective variables, when those whose incomes are rising do not expect the positive trends to persist. Those in a marginal labour market situation are more dissatisfied than others, regardless of their income, and this dissatisfaction may spread to family members in a different position. This combined sphere makes up almost a third of Hungary's population. Negative labour-market expectations are likewise factors that reduce satisfaction.
17
Content available remote Szkolnictwo wyższe w Polsce a rynek pracy
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The paper presents relations between graduate education in Poland and the labour market. Nowadays the graduates are often unemployed and this trend augments. Who is responsible for this social phenomenon? Students? Universities? Or the state with its unreasonable politics on education?
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Given the relatively low level of productivity and the persisting productivity gap (between the European Union and the United States, and among the member states), measures to enhance total factor productivity growth and productivity convergence in the member states of the European Union are inevitable. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors influencing productivity convergence in member states of the European Union, with emphasis on the role of selected labour market institutions. By means of fixed effects panel regression (LSDV estimator), a catch-up specification of production function and its extensions are estimated. The empirical analysis is conducted on a dataset covering observations from 1995 to 2017 for all member states of the European Union. The empirical results have approved the role of knowledge in determining total factor productivity convergence and the suggestion about the decisive role of labour market institutions.
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The contribution deals with the employment problem in EU countries and approaches to its solution that are based on the European Council recommendations. Unemployment in EU has been a serious problem from the global point of view, but we can also see regional differences, long term unemployment and unemployment of young people. The European development model includes economic measures based on complex social policy and employment policy. The objective of employment policy is to balance labour supply and labour demand, to provide citizens with the right to work and to utilise the labour resources effectively. The contribution evaluates results of implementing the Employment strategy in EU 15 as well as in Slovakia.
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Content available remote Workers aged 45+ and their problems
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In the year 2005, Polish population aged 55–64 years showed the lowest level of economic activity in EU-25 (27.2%). Actions should be taken therefore to improve the situation, as it produces a series of negative socio-economic consequences. The article presents outcomes of surveys focused on a group of workers aged 45+, which investigated workers' problems with staying on the Lódz labour market. Attention was paid to both subjective and objective circumstances related to variables such as sex, age, level of education, occupied position, years of service, as well as working life's experiences arising from changing jobs and unemployment.
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