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The study deals with the effects of labour-market institutions and rigidities on the rate of unemployment, analysing four institutions: unemployment benefit, the trade unions, taxation, and dismissal constraints. The pay model presented is a version of those associated with Pissarides. An attempt is made with this to express numerically the individual and compound effects of the institutions on the unemployment rate, and to gauge how much they influence the process of accommodation that follows shocks. The results show that taxes and dismissal constraints do not increase the rate of unemployment significantly; the effect of them becomes significant only when coupled with high unemployment benefit. A greater contribution to high unemployment is made by the bargaining power of the unions and the scale of unemployment benefit, but these effects can be ameliorated only by factors that do not feature in the model. The constraints on dismissal included in the model slow the reaction to the productivity shock, but the extent of this is not significant.
Content available remote Cmac and Its Extensions for Efficient System Modelling
This paper deals with the family of CMAC neural networks. The most important properties of this family are the extremely fast learning capability and a special architecture that makes effective digital hardware implementation possible. The paper gives an overview of the classical binary CMAC, shows the limitations of its modelling capability, gives a critical survey of its different extensions and suggests two further modifications. The aim of these modifications is to improve the modelling capability while maintaining the possibility of an effective realization. The basic element of the first suggested hardware structure is a new matrix-vector multiplier which is based on a canonical signed digit (CSD) number representation and a distributed arithmetic. In the other version, a hierarchical network structure and a special sequential training method are proposed which can constitute a trade-off between the approximation error and generalization. The proposed versions (among them a dynamic extension of the originally static CMAC) are suitable for embedded applications where the low cost and relatively high speed operation are the most important requirements.
The aim of the present study was to compare carotenoid extracts of Rose hips (Rosa canina L.) with regard to their phytochemical profiles and their in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), cytotoxic, multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal and radical scavenging activity. Carotenoid composition was investigated in the different fractionation of rose hips, using extraction methods. Six main carotenoids - epimers of neochrome, lutein, zeaxanthin, rubixanthin, lycopene, β,β-carotene - were identified from Rose hips by their chromatographic behavior and UV-visible spectra, which is in accordance with other studies on carotenoids in this plant material. The active principles in the carotenoid extract might differ, depending upon the extraction procedures.
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