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EN
Paper examines the results of zooarchaeological analysis of horse remains from the Middle and Late Neolithic occupation at Bronocice in Poland. Authors consider the following questions: 1. How important were horses in the faunal sample? 2. What were the frequencies of different skeletal parts? 3. What was the age at death of horses? 4. Whether any changes in the frequencies of the horse remains took place through time? 5. How horse bones were used for tool production? and 6. Whether the horses were wild or domesticated species? The remains of horses found in the Funnel Beaker features at Bronocice represent the wild species. It is possible that the late Funnel Beaker-Baden Culture people possessed domesticated horses. The frequencies of horses, wild or domestic, are very low at Bronocice in comparison to other animals such as cattle, sheep/goat, and pigs. This suggests that horses at least as food resource played a minor role in the subsistence strategy of the Funnel Beaker communities. What were their role in rituals and other activities is unclear.
EN
The reported research in Malzyce, site 30, situated on one of the vast loess-covered elevations of the Malopolska Upland has brought valuable data on the Funnel Beaker (TRB) and the Corded Ware (CWC) cultures in West Malopolska. The central grave of the TRB barrow was accompanied by five younger graves of the CWC and three graves of the Mierzanowice culture. In the TRB grave two vessels and a flint trapezium were found. In its size and constructional traits the Malzyce TRB barrow is analogous to various CWC features of this type. But because of its dating - the TRB tumulus in Malzyce cannot be regarded as a valid argument for deriving CWC burial mounds from TRB structures.
EN
The article presents the anthropological description skeletons of the Funnel Beaker Culture and the Corded Ware Culture inhabitants that were discovered in the tomb no. 2 on the site in Malzyce. The preserved fragments of skeletons allow to assess that in the grave 1 there was buried 2 individuals: female in the 'adultus' age and an adult individual. The location and arrangement of bones show that the woman was buried in the south part of pit and the adult individual in the northern part of it. In the grave 3 the preserved fragments of skeletons allow to assess that the grave contained remains of 2 individuals placed to the pit antipodally. In the west part of the grave was buried individual in the age 'adultus' whereas the individual in the age 'maturus' was located head to the east part of feature. The anthropological interpretation of skeleton buried in grave 4 was possible only during excavations. Sex and age of the individual were not determined. In the grave 10 the skeleton was laid on the bottom of the niche, deposited on its back, orientated NW-SE. The preserved elements of the skeleton show that remnants belonged to a male in age at death 'maturus' (40-45 years) and stature 177,6 cm. The discovered in grave 11 skeleton was deposited orientated along N-S axis, on right side head to the south. On the basis of preserved teeth and fragments of bones it was possible to determine that it was a child in the age at death 'infans' I (1-1,5 years), sex was not determined. The skeleton in grave 12 was laid on its back with the head and legs tilted to the left. The body was N-S orientated, with the head placed to the north. On the basis of dental development and preserved elements of postcranial skeleton it could be determined that it was the individual in the age at death 'infans' II (11-12 years).
EN
The article presents new results of rescue excavations in Malzyce (Little Poland; loess covered upland). The mound marked as 'barrow 2' was a rest of TRB megalithic monument. Also four graves of Corded Ware and two graves of Mierzanowice culture were discovered. The article concerns a detailed description of finds, especially of rich catacomb graves of Corded Ware culture. On the basis of the absolute and the relative chronologies it may be assumed that barrow in Malzyce was used in two phases separated by nearly a thousand years; the first phase was related to the TRB (approx. 3600-3300 BC), and the second phase to the Cracow-Sandomierz group of Corded Ware culture (approx. 2500-2400 BC). Moreover, two graves point to the third phase in the history of the place: Early Bronze age.
EN
The Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory has made 2 radiocarbon dating measurements for graves 2 and 3 from Barrow I in Kolosy, district of Kazimierza Wielka. Human bones from these graves were selected for the radiocarbon dating as 'materials representing the Corded Ware culture' (CWC). However, the measurements placed the bones in the Funnel Beaker culture (FBC) instead. The new dating has provided a pretext for reconsidering the stratigraphical situation of the burial mound in Kolosy. There are also other reasons to link Graves 2 and 3 to the FBC and to assume that the mound was built as early as in the 4th millennium BC. The most important of these reasons are the constructions of graves and the position of the skeletons. If Graves 2 and 3 are correctly linked to the FBC, no CWC feature has been discovered under the mound in Kolosy. The presence of a FBC barrow in Kolosy may be regarded as probable. Nevertheless, another possibility should be taken into account: radiocarbon dated Graves 2 and 3 could have been a part (or perhaps the 'whole') of a flat FBC cemetery that was accidentally covered later with a CWC embankment. The central barrow grave would then have been entirely destroyed by the modern digs. Such a development, though less convincing, is also possible.
EN
The Funnel Beaker or Trichterbecher (TRB) occupation at Bronocice, southeastern Poland (Malopolska) was based on a mixed farming economy, the cultivation of cereals and the keeping of domesticated animals. A zooarchaeological analysis and interpretation of the faunal assemblage from three phases of Funnel Beaker occupation (3800-3100 BC) revealed significant trends and patterns in animal husbandry practices reflective of increasing social complexity and specialization. In comparison with other sites in southeastern Poland the faunal data from Bronocice stands out as unique among Funnel Beaker sites with the exception of Zawarza.
EN
Around 5600-5500 cal BC first farmers appeared at the North European Lowland initiating ca 2.000 years lasting process of neolithisation of this area. A unique feature of Dabki settlement is the presence of several horizons of imports in the Late Mesolithic and early FBC context, mainly pottery vessels. These imports point toward an important role of that place in the exchange system between Mesolithic groups inhabited Central European Lowland and Neolithic people. Beside local hunters-gatherers, groups of Linear Band Pottery, Stroke Band Pottery, Ertebolle, Brzesc Kujawski Group, Funnel Beaker and finally Bodrogkeresztúr cultures were engaged in these contacts. Till 2009 on site 9 at Dabki there were discovered 8 potsherds of the Bodrogkeresztúr culture. Ornamentation, morphology, and technology of the fragments are typical for the pottery of the culture in question. We can synchronize the discussed imports with the earliest Funnel Beaker settlement stage in Dabki, i.e. with years 4100/4000 cal BC.
EN
Site 'G' in Slonowice has been explored archaeologically since 1979. The site lies on the south upland slope, falling away toward the Maloszówka river. The FBC is known from numerous settlements in this territory, but little could be said of the sepulchral aspect of their life prior to the work at Slonowice. Even so, the sheer size of the site (15-20 ha), limited funds and the hitherto unexplored subject range necessitated relatively slow progress of research and cautious interpretation. Following more than twenty years of research it can be said to be 'a temenos', a separate sacred enclosure connected with a burial ground. A rectangular square measuring about 110 m to the side occupied flattened ground in the middle of the slope, limited on the east, west and presumably also north by two parallel ditches with a presumed embankment sandwiched between them, built of the earth excavated from the ditches. On the south side, the square was closed with a trapezoid timber-and-earth tomb, also about 110 m long. The walls of this structure were made of rows of wooden posts driven vertically into the ground, the space between the rows filled in with earth from ditches dug parallel to the outer walls of the tomb. A few more features of the same kind were localized further to the south, more or less parallel to one another, standing on the part of the slope already falling away toward the river. No two are the same, even though they share certain characteristics, such as a similar 'palisade' technique for erecting the walls - timber posts driven into foundation trenches about 0.5 m wide and 1 m deep. The length of the structures differs substantially. The longest ones (nos I and II), both over a hundred meters long, are unique in that they have ditches of varied depth and width, from which the soil for the embankments was excavated. The tombs nos III-VI are of smaller size and are revealed solely by the outlines of the foundation ditches under the timber walls. The complex has been dated to the beginnings of FBC culture in western Little Poland, i.e., first half of the 4th millennium B.C. The site was next occupied by a Trzciniec Culture village in the Old Bronze Age (17-12 c. B.C.) and revealed a few hundred pits of a domestic nature, about 1 m in diameter and up to 2 m deep. Pits cut through the earlier Neolithic structures. Archaeological method was supplemented with geophysical prospection. The geophysical prospection carried out by T. Herbich (1983-2005) is the biggest project of its kind conducted so far on an archaeological site in Poland. The resultant map complements the archaeological picture of the megalithic tomb substructures and provides a precise understanding of both the Neolithic and Old Bronze Age phases of occupation of the Sonowice site. An analysis of the combined results of excavations and magnetic mapping have recorded the site layout and traced the course of ditches with the wall foundations of tombs nos I, II and VI, identified tomb no. VII, the extent of the pits connected with the Trzciniec Culture and the course of ditches connected with the Bronze Age occupation of the site. This discovery has put the Slłonowice site among the few settlements from the Bronze Age known from the archaeological record in Poland as having traces of defensive installations. Figs 13.
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